BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD

When was the Battle of Bosworth and what led up to this battle?  Who fought at the battle and who won?

 

 

DATE                                            22ND AUGUST 1485

 

LOCATION

BOSWORTH NEAR AMBION HILL, SOUTH OF MARKET BOSWORTH, LEICESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND

OPPOSING SIDE

RICHARD III (HOUSE OF YORK&HENRY TUDOR (HOUSE LANCASTER)

RESULT

       TUDOR VICTORY

INTRODUCTION

This wasn’t the last battle in the Wars of the Roses but certainly was the last significant one. It was fought and won, by the Lancastrian Henry Tudor, now known as Henry VII of England, after his Victory and becoming in the First in a line of Tudor Monarchs.

Henry’s opponent was the Yorkist King, Richard III of England. Henry Tudor was a descendant of Edward III. Margaret Beaufort, Henry's mother, was the great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, so Henry’s claim to the English throne came through his mother.

Richard III was also the great-great-grandson of Edward III of England, through the Edmund of Langley line.

This battle saw the end of the Plantagenet dynasty on the English throne, a dynasty that had held England’s crown for over three hundred and thirty-one years. As even though Henry did have some Plantagenet blood in his veins, by the name he was a Tudor.

 

Richard III has been portrayed in Shakespeare’s play as the hunchback, the villain, however, Shakespeare only gives us an insight into what may have been a Tudor perspective of that time. If Richard had some sort of disfigurement, he would be viewed as different and judged as odd and a target of ridicule. The Question is was he really the villain that Shakespeare has painted him to be in some of his works, or was a lot of this just Tudor propaganda.

BACKGROUND
 
RICHARD III ENGLAND

The Wars of the Roses began with the First Battle of St Albans, on the 22nd of May 1455. This was triggered by a division in the kingdom of Henry VI of England, due to a mental breakdown he had experienced. Henry needed a regent as he was incapable of ruling himself. The regent that was appointed was no other than his cousin Richard Plantagenet’s, the 3rd Duke of York.

When Richard 3rd Duke of York was regent. He had a lot of reservations over Henry VI wife, Margaret of Anjou. Like many others in the realm, he doubted the paternity of Margaret and Henry's only son, “Edward of Westminster”. At the time of conception, allot of people felt that Henry VI could hardly function normally, never mind perform the act to conceive a child. Richard later in his regency wanted to be named Henry VI successor. Margaret of Anjou would not accept this. Margaret appeared to be in the driving seat of the marriage and the one in control. This displeased many at court not just Richard (Duke of York). Eventually, Richard made the choice to seize the throne for himself, as he and many others seen Henry VI was not fit to rule at all. He himself felt that being a great-grandson of King Edward III from not only his father’s line, but his mother’s also, he felt he was the best person to take the reins. These are some of the reasons that triggered what we know now of in history as the Wars of The Roses.
Richard 3rd Duke of York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield on the 30th December 1460. The wars did not end with his death. As then his son Edward rose and came forward with his claim and came through with a victory. On the 4th of March 1461, just three months after the death of his father, Edward became king as  Edward IV of England was then deposed and King. This victory may not have happened without the influence and help of his cousin Richard Neville 16th Earl of Warwick, who was also known in history as the Kingmaker. There was time is appeared to many it was Earl Warwick was in control due to his influence of King Edward IV.

In 1464, King Edward, then met and fell in love, with Elizabeth Woodville. He then secretly married her. This turned Richard the Earl of Warwick’s plans upside down. The Earl had planned for Edward to marry someone of royal birth, and even had put plans in motion, for a possible union between the French king Louis XI daughter and Edward. So when Edward broke the news that he was already married, this angered the Earl, as he felt all that they had fought for was thrown away. Elizabeth Woodville was not only a commoner but a widow of a Lancastrian knight, Sir John Grey of Groby. This was the beginning of the division in Edwards strongest ally. Edward never helped matters later, as not only did he marry into a family not seen as fit for royalty, but he also gave good marriage matches away to Elizabeth Woodvilles siblings. This created anger amongst the nobles in his kingdom. Nobles in the kingdom felt good matches had been robbed by them and given away to a commoner’s family. At this point Edward had no male heir, only daughters and the deposed king Henry VI and his son were still in exile and alive. Edward position as king of England, was still quite vulnerable because these of these reasons and the Earl of Warwick knew this.

 

By late 1460’s, the Earl of Warwick went from the king’s close advisor to his enemy. In October 1470, he was again the driving force behind, Henry VI brief return to the throne, living up to his reputation as the Kingmaker.

Richard Neville had two daughters, Anne and Isabell. The Earl had his oldest daughter, Isabel, married Edward IV brother George in July 1469. Then later his second daughter Anne was married to Henry VI son, Edward of Westminster in December 1470.

In April 1471, Richard the Earl of Warwick died at the battle of Barnet. At the same time, Edward returned to the English throne. Henry VI was captured and taken the prisoner and not long after died in prison, or by many said to have died suspiciously and conveniently. Henry VI son, Edward of Westminster was later killed in the battle of Tewksbury in May 1471. Now all potential threats toking King Edwards seat on the English throne had gone. Best of all Elizabeth Woodville had given birth to a son and heir for Edward, and later in 1473 a second son.

 

Edward of Westminster’s widow, Anne Neville returned to court. Anne wanted to be close to her sister Isabel after their father’s death, Richard the Earl of Warwick. Anne then married in private Richard the Duke of Gloucester (the future Richard III) who was the other brother to King Edward. The marriage caused tension again, but this time with Richard s brother George. George felt he had a right to the full inheritance left of the wealthy late Richard Neville. The divisions were settled, and things seemed to be fine until George planned to overthrow his brother King Edward after the death of his own wife Isabell. This led to the execution of George for treason. Leaving Richard as Edward's only surviving brother.

 

In 1483, King Edward became ill and died. Leaving instructions for his brother Richard to be regent for his son and Heir Edward V. The Woodville were not pleased with this decision and Richard knew he had to take control, in order to not let the Woodvilles seize power. There were many in the kingdom that still resented how the Woodvilles had risen so high in rank, all due to the marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.

Richard then managed to find and take charge of the New King Edward V, placing him in the Tower of London, which was the custom for the new king to stay while awaiting their coronation. However just before the coronation was about to take place. Richard requested that Edward V younger brother Richard should join him in the tower. At this point, Elizabeth Woodville, who was now Queen dowager had fled into a sanctuary. Elizabeth was eventually persuaded to allow her son Edward’s brother to join him, Elizabeth had many reservations if she was making the right choice in doing this.

 

Not long after prince Richard joined his brother Edward in the tower. The news came that there would be no coronation. That Edward V was not the rightful heir to the English throne and that the marriage of Elizabeth Woodville and the later Edward IV marriage was not seen as valid. Allegations came forward, that the late king Edward had married in secret previous to his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. All which was quite a convenient thing to say due to the fact that the suppose bride was now also dead and also the groom. Richard used this as justification to take the throne for himself. On the 6th July 1483, Richard and his wife Anne Neville were crowned king and Queen of England.

 

The Princes, Edward and Richard the sons of Edward IV of England. Never left the tower of London. By the summer of 1483, they were not sighted or seen again. This event has left a chill into peoples minds, not only at the time of their disappearance of what happened to them but also throughout history. Till this day no-one has solved the mystery of the missing princes.

Richard’s wife Anne Neville died on the 12th March 1485. By the Summer Richard was preparing for battle with his rival Henry Tudor. Elizabeth of York the eldest daughter of his brother Edward IV had returned to court not long after her mother had left the sanctuary. There had been rumours of a love affair between Richard and his niece Elizabeth However after the death of Anne Neville, it seemed either he was genuine in his grief over his wife’s death, or it seemed only morally right to send away Elizabeth from the court. People had been whispering in the court of Richard and Elizabeth had an affair. By sending Elizabeth Away, Richard maybe felt his actions would put a stop to these rumours.

 

 

HENRY TUDOR

Henry was born in 1457, his mother Margaret Beaufort was only twelve years old when she gave birth. Henry’s father was Edmund Tudor. Edmund was the son of the queen dowager Catherine of Valois and Owen Tudor. Owen was Catherine's second husband. Edmund was also a half-brother to King Henry VI of England. Margaret Beaufort was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt.

Edmund was imprisoned during the Wars of the Roses in Carmarthen Castle. In November 1456, Edmund became infected with the bubonic plague and died. When Edmund Tudor died, Jasper, Edmunds brother took the young Margaret under his wing along with his nephew Henry.

 

For most of Henry's youth, he spent in exile. Henry was a potential threat to the English throne. However, in 1483, after the events that unfolded since the princes went missing from the tower. Henry's mother Margaret Beaufort plotted and planned with Elizabeth Woodville for a union between her son Henry and Elizabeth’s and the late King Edward IV eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York, to be married, and for her son Henry to take the English throne and have Elizabeth as his queen. This battle of Bosworth field, in fact, would have been a life changing event for Elizabeth of York, knowing whoever won the battle, would be wanting her hand in marriage to secure their seat on the English throne.

PREPARATION FOR THE BATTLE

RICHARD III:

Richards, most loyal subject was John. Howard the Duke of Norfolk. The Duke had not only served Richard for many years, but also served his brother Edward IV of England. Henry Percy who was the Earl of Northumberland had also supported Richard III claim to the English throne, the Percy’s had been loyal Lancastrian supporters, but switched alliances after Edward IV had won them over.

From the June in 1485, Richard was aware that Henry Tudor planned to invade England to take the English throne. Richard received news on 11th August that Henry had arrived in England. Richard then sent word to notify his lords of their king's mobilisation. On the 16th of August, the Yorkist army started to gather. John. Howard the Duke of Norfolk set off for Leicester. On 20th of August, Richard rode from Nottingham to Leicester. He then was joined by John. Howard and they spent the night at the Blue Boar Inn.

The royal army proceeded westwards to intercept Henry' march on London. Passing Sutton Cheney, Richard moved his army towards Ambion Hill in which he thought would be of tactical value and they made camp here. The night before the battle, Richard had a very wrestles night, he knew he had the bigger forces, but doubted their loyalty and where their hearts truly laid

In one of Shakespeares play it speaks of how, the night before the battle, someone had left John. Howard a note attached to his tent warning him that King Richard III, his "master," was going to be double-crossed (which he was): However, this story does not appear prior to Edward Hall in 1548, so the story may well be an apocryphal embellishment of a later era. Edward Hall was a Tudor Historian.

 

HENRY TUDOR:

On the 1st of August in 1485, Henry' set sail for England. This had been funded by the French King. Henry' was proud of his Welsh roots and hoped his presence would encourage other Welsh nobles to support his cause. Henry Landed in Wales on the 7th of August 1485, in Mill bay dale Pembroke. Ten days later the 17th of August he was in England. When Henry'had arrived in Pembrokeshire, he was told that the whole Pembroke was prepared to serve him.

 

When Henry Tudor entered England, he was unfamiliar with war and didn’t know the territory. He knew the odds were against him. The first fourteen years of his life were spent in Wales and furthermore fourteen years in Brittany and France. Henry depended on and recruiting other experienced men to fight alongside him, people like John de Vere, who was the 13th Earl of Oxford. John would be one ofHenry'’s principal military commanders at the battle.

Although the city of London was Henry 'primary place to capture. He headed for Shrewsbury to rest there for a while.Henry's forces went eastwards and then picked up Sir Gilbert Talbot and other English allies, including deserters from King Richard’s forces. Even though Henry' army had increased since he had landed in England, he still did not have enough men. He knew he was greatly outnumbered by King Richard’s troops. Henry' took his time while travelling through Staffordshire, hoping to gather more troops along the way. `Henry''s forces had been variously estimated at between 5,000 and 8,000 men. Aware of his own military inexperience, Henry' handed the command of his army to John De Vere and decided retired to the rear of the battlefield with his bodyguards.

BATTLE

 

Richard had his troops on one end of the field. Henry Tudor had him over the hill on the other side. Lord Thomas Stanley was in between both sides, a place where he had a good view on BothHenry and Richard. Thomas Stanley was the stepfather to Henry Tudor, however also an ally of King Richard's. Until a certain point in the battle. Thomas just sat where he was with his men, watching all that was happening.

The commanders on both sides were experienced men, John de Vere led for Henry Tudor. While John Howard Led for King Richard. Richard himself sat on the crest and watched anxiously over the battlefield.

 

John De Vere, seeing the vast line of Richard's army strung along the ridgeline Decided to keep his men together instead of splitting them into the traditional three battles: of The Vanguard, the centre and the rear guard. He ordered the troops to stray no further than 10 feet (3.0 m) from their banners, fearing that they would become enveloped.

 

First to engage in the battle were the archers. Richard 's group, under the command of Sir Robert Brackenbury, started to advance. Hails of arrows showered both sides as they closed in. However, the crossbow was much deadlier in this battle.

The two lines of infantry moved steadily towards each other. There was at least an hour of hand to hand fighting. Many of the men would use a weapon called the “Bill”. A Bill could stab hack or draw a horseman from his charger. An early appearance that was made, was the use of stone cannon balls and the use of black powder.

This was also a time, for people to settle old scores, duelling with their enemy hand to hand. Richard signalled for Henry Percy the Duke of Northumberland to assist but Northumberland's group showed no signs of movement. Historians believe Northumberland changed his mind and chose not to aid his king for personal reasons. Richard had been an experienced commander and had been in other battles. He knew he had a bigger army here, yet underneath it all, he was still worried.

 

King Richard, sent a message to Thomas Stanley, threatening to execute his son, Lord Strange if Stanley did not join the attack on Henry Tudor immediately. Stanley replied that he had other sons. Incensed, Richard gave the order to behead Lord Strange but his officers temporised by saying that battle was imminent and It would be more convenient to carry out the execution afterwards. In general, The Stanley’s had been outwardly loyal to King Richard but had secretly been remaining in contact with Henry Tudor. Henry Tudor had also sent messengers to Stanley asking him to declare his allegiance.

 

It was said, that some of the men broke off their fighting and then brought in their reserves, armour was very heavy and fighting could be exhausting. Some of Richard’s men whose heart was not fully in the battle began to slip away. When the battle began to go against Richard, his companions urged him to flee. Richard refused. Richard then saw Henry Tudor from a distance with a small escort. Richard fired his horse, towards Henry, hoping he could just kill him and end the battle. Richard charged towards Henry. At this in time, Thomas Stanley’s men joined in the battle to support Henry Tudor. Thomas Stanley himself did not join in the battle, he stayed behind and watched on.

 

Accounts note that King Richard fought bravely and ably during this manoeuvre, unhorsing Sir John Cheyne, a well-known jousting champion and killing Henry's standard bearer Sir William Brandon. Richard’s position, however, became hopeless, he lost his horse and fell. There is a memorial of the spot where he is believed have to feel and be hacked to death.

 

The Welsh poet Guto's Glyn writes that a leading Welsh Lancastrian Rhys ap Thomas, or one of his men, killed the king, writing that he "killed the boar, shaved his head".

 

Richard III was the last English king to be killed in battle.

 

AFTER THE BATTLE

 

At the end of the battle, Henry Tudor thanked all his men in arms, and it was most likely here he had the crown placed on his head. Henry Tudor took the crown by right of conquest as Henry VII. Henry chose to be crowned on the 30th of October 1485, just before his marriage to Elizabeth of York. Henry and Elizabeth of York married on the 18th of January 1486. Joining the houses of York and Lancaster finally.

When Henry Tudor had become king after defeating King Richard in the Battle of Bosworth on August 22nd, 1485. He then decided to backdate it, to the start of his reign to August 21st, the day before the battle, enabling him to prosecute anyone who had fought under his rival and to execute them for treason. This was highly controversial at the time since it meant that, in a future battle, anyone who fought for the rightful king against a usurper would be at risk of execution if they lost.

Richard's body was dragged back to Leicester and then put on public display naked, at the Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady of the Newark. The body stayed there for a few days, then it was buried in a nearby unmarked spot at the Greyfriars Priory. The church was demolished following the friary's dissolution in 1538 and the location of Richard's tomb was long uncertain.

In 1511 the wardens of St. James' chapel at Dadlington, petitioned King Henry the VIII for a chantry foundation in memory of those who fell at the Battle of Bosworth, in 1485 (the churchyard being the main place of interment for the dead)

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

In 2012 The archaeological excavation was led by the University of Leicester Archaeological Services. On the first day, a human skeleton belonging to a man in his thirties was uncovered showing signs of severe injuries. The skeleton, which had several unusual physical features, most notably a severe curvature of the back, was exhumed to allow scientific analysis. on 4th February 2013 that it had concluded beyond reasonable doubt that the skeleton was that of Richard III. Reinternment took place in Leicester on 26th of March 2015, during a televised memorial service held in the presence of the Archbishop of Canterbury and senior members of other Christian denominations.

NOTABLE PEOPLE  WHO FOUGHT AT BOSWORTH FIELD

 
 

SIR JOHN AUDLEY

  • John fought for the Yorkist side

 

SIR JOHN BABINGTON

  • LIFE-TIME DIED 22ND AUGUST 1485

  • John fought for the Yorkist side

  • John was the was the high sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the royal forests

 

WILLIAM BEAUMONT

  • LIFE-TIME APRIL 1438 – 19 DECEMBER 1507

  • William fought for the Lancastrian side

  • William was the 2nd viscount Beaumont

 

JOHN BLOUNT

  • LIFETIME 1450 – 12TH OCTOBER 1485

  • John fought for the Lancastrian side

  • John was the 3rd baron Mountjoy

 

SIR JOHN BOURCHIER

  • LIFETIME 1438 – 1495

  • John fought for the Yorkist side

  • John was the 6th baron Ferrers Of Groby

 

JOHN BRABAZON

  • John was killed at the battle

 

SIR WILLIAM BRANDON

  • LIFETIME 1456 – 22ND AUGUST 1485

  • William fought for the Lancastrian side

  • William was Henry Tudor's standard-bearer at the battle. Williams son Charles Brandon would be a close friend to the Future King Henry VIII of England and he would be the second husband of Mary Tudor Queen of France, the second daughter of Henry VII of England.

     

SIR JOHN BUCK

  • LIFE-TIME DIED 1485

  • John fought for the Lancastrian side

  • John was executed after supporting Richard III at the battle

 

THOMAS BURGH

  • LIFETIME 1431- 18TH MARCH 1496

  • Thomas fought for the Yorkist side

  • Thomas initially supported king Richard III but was more interested in securing the future of Henry Tudor

 

EDMUND CAREW

  • LIFETIME 1465–1513

  • Edmund fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Edmund was knighted by King Henry VII at the battle

 

WILLIAM CATESBY

  • LIFETIME 1450– 25 AUGUST 1485

  • William fought for the Yorkist side

  • William was one of Richard III of England's principal councillors

  • Robert Catesby, leader of the Gunpowder Plot, was a descendant.

  • William was killed in battle

 

PHILIBERT DE CHANDÉE

  • LIFE-TIME DIED 1486

  • Philibert fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Philbert was the 1st earl of bath

 

JOHN CHEYNE

  • LIFE-TIME1442– 1499

  • John fought for the Lancastrian side

  • John was Baron Cheyne

 

ROGER CLIFFORD

  • LIFE-TIME DIED 1485

  • Roger fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Roger was beheaded after the battle

 

SIR HUGH CONWAY

  • Hugh fought for the Lancastrian side.

  • Hugh was a Lord Treasurer Of Ireland in 1494

 

SIR JOHN CONYERS

  • LIFE-TIME DIED 1490

  • John fought for the Yorkist side.,

 

EDWARD COURTENAY

  • LIFE-TIME DIED .1509

  • Edward fought for the Lancastrian side.

  • Edward was the 1st Earl of Devon

 

THOMAS DACRE

  • LIFE-TIME 25TH NOVEMBER 1467 – 24TH OCTOBER 1525

  • Thomas fought for the Yorkist side

  • Thomas was the 2nd Baron Dacre of Gilsland

  • He was a distant cousin to the future Queen consort Catherine Parr

 

WALTER DEVEREUX

  • LIFETIME 1432 – 22ND AUGUST 1485

  • Walter fought for the Yorkist cause.

  • Walter was the 7th Baron Ferrers of Chartley

  • He was killed at the battle.

 

SIMON DIGBY

  • LIFE-TIME DIED 1519

  • Simon fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Simon was rewarded for his services at the battle, with extensive lands in rutland.

 

RICHARD EDGCUMBE

  • LIFE-TIME DIED 1489

  • Richard fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Richard was knighted after the battle

 

SIR JOHN FOGGE

  • LIFETIME 1417–1490

  • John fought for the Lancastrian side

  • John was the soldier and supporter of the Woodville family under Edward IV who became an opponent of Richard III

 

JAMES HARRINGTON

  • LIFETIME 1430– 22ND AUGUST 1485

  • James fought for the Yorkist side

  • He was killed at the battle

 

HENRY VII OF ENGLAND

  • LIFETIME 28th JANUARY 1457 – 21st APRIL 1509

  • Henry Fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Henry was the future king of England. Reign 22nd August 1485 – 21st April 1509

  • He was the son of Margaret Beaufort and Edmund Tudor and a grandson of the late Queen Consort Catherine of Valois and a nephew of King Henry VI of England.

  • Elizabeth of York was the Future Queen consort of Henry, the daughter of the late Edward IV of England

 

JOHN HOWARD

  • LIFETIME 1425 – 22ND AUGUST 1485

  • John fought for the Yorkist side

  • John was the 1st Duke of Norfolk

  • He was the commander of the vanguard and was killed by an arrow at the battle

  • John is also the Great-grandfather of future Queen consorts Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard

 

THOMAS HOWARD

  • LIFETIME 1443 – 21 MAY 1524

  • Thomas was the 2nd Duke of Norfolk

  • He was a commander in the battle, he was wounded and taken prisoner,

  • He was a son of John Howard and grandfather to two future queen consorts Anne Boleyn And Catherine Howard

  •  

SIR WALTER HUNGERFORD

  • LIFE-TIME DEATH 1515

  • Walter fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Walter was later served on the privy council for both Henry VII And Henry VIII

 

JOHN KENDAL

  • LIFETIME 1400 – 1485

  • John fought for the Yorkist side

  • John was killed in the battle

 

FRANCIS LOVELL

  • LIFETIME 1456 – AFTER 1488

  • Francis fought for the Yorkist side

  • Francis was the 9th baron Lovell, 6th Baron Holland

  • He was a English nobleman who was an ally of King Richard III of England. sir William Catesby, Sir Richard Ratcliffe and he were Richard's closest supporters, famously called "the cat, the rat and Lovell our dog"

 

SIR THOMAS LOVELL

  • LIFE-TIME Died 1524

  • Thomas fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Thomas was a speaker of the house of commons, secretary to the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer.

 

RHYS FAWR AP MAREDUDD

  • LIFE-TIME DIED 1510

  • Rhys fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Rhys was a welsh noble man

 

HENRY MARNEY

  • LIFE-TIME 1447 – 24TH MAY 1523

  • Henry fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Henry was the 1st baron Marney

  • He rose to favour during the battles of Bosworth and stoke

  • In 1515 he began building the Tudor-style layer Marney Tower in Layer Marney

 

WILLIAM NORREYS

  • LIFE-TIME 1441 – BEFORE 10TH JANUARY 1507

  • William fought for the Lancastrian side

  • William was richly rewarded for his loyalty at the battle

 

 

HENRY PERCY

  • LIFE-TIME 1449 – 28TH APRIL 1489

  • Henry fought for the Yorkist side

  • Henry was the 4th earl of Northumberland

  • He led major part of the army at the battle but failed to commit his troops

 

JOHN DE LA POLE

  • LIFE-TIME 1462/1464 – 16TH JUNE 1487

  • John fought for the Yorkist side

  • John was the 1st earl of Lincoln

  • He was a commander at the battle and was killed at the Battle Stoke

 

RICHARD RATCLIFFE

  • LIFE-TIME Death 22ND AUGUST 1485

  • Richard fought for the Yorkist side

  • Richard was a close confidant of Richard III of England

  • He was killed in battle

 

RICHARD III OF ENGLAND

  • LIFE-TIME 2ND OCTOBER 1452 – 22ND AUGUST 1485

  • Richard fought for the Yorkist side

  • Richard was king of England Reign  26th June 1483 – 22nd  August 1485

  • He was the brother of the Late Edward IV of England and the uncle to Elizabeth of York

     

JOHN SAVAGE

  • LIFE-TIME DIED 1493

  • John fought for the Lancastrian side

  • John was nephew to William and Thomas Stanley

 

JOHN SCROPE

  • LIFE-TIME 22ND JULY 1437 – 17TH AUGUST 1498

  • John fought for the Yorkist side

  • John was the 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton

 

SIR HUMPHREY STAFFORD

  • LIFE-TIME DEATH 1486

  • Humphrey fought for the Yorkist side

  • Humphrey was executed by Henry VII for his support of Richard III

 

GEORGE STANLEY

  • LIFE-TIME 1460–1503

  • George fought for the Lancastrian side

  • George was the 9th Baron Strange

  • He was the son of Thomas Stanley and a hostage at the Battle of Richard III England

 

THOMAS STANLEY

  • LIFE-TIME 1435 – 29TH JULY 1504

  • Thomas fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Thomas was the step father to Henry Tudor

 

SIR WILLIAM STANLEY

  • LIFE-TIME1435 – 16TH FEBRUARY 1495

  • William fought for the Lancastrian cause

  • William was the commander at the at the battle

  • He was the brother of Thomas Stanley

  • In 1495 Stanley was convicted of treason and executed for his support of the pretender Perkin Warbeck

 

BERNARD STEWART,

  • LIFETIME 1452 – 15TH JUNE 1508

  • Bernard fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Bernard was the 3rd Lord Of Aubign

  • He was chosen to command the French troops that accompanied the battle

 

SIR GILBERT TALBOT OF GRAFTON

  • LIFE-TIME 1452 – 16 AUGUST 1517 OR 19TH SEPTEMBER 1518

  • Gilbert fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Gilbert was an English Tudor knight

  • He commanded the right wing at the battle

 

RHYS AP THOMAS

  • LIFE-TIME 1449–1525

  • Rhys fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Rhys was a Welsh soldier and landholder

  • Some sources claim that he personally delivered the death blow to King Richard III at the Bosworth with his poleaxe

 

JASPER TUDOR

  • LIFE-TIME NOVEMBER 1431 – 21/26TH DECEMBER 1495

  • Jasper fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Jasper was the Duke of Bedford, Earl of Pembroke

  • He was an uncle to Henry VII England

  • Jasper married Catherine Woodville in 1485 who was the sister to Queen dowager Elizabeth Woodville

 

NICHOLAS VAUX

  • LIFETIME 1460 – 14TH MAY 1523

  • Nicholas fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Nicholas was the 1st baron Vaux of Harrowden

 

JOHN DE VERE

  • LIFE-TIME 8TH SEPTEMBER 1442 – 10TH MARCH 1513

  • John fought for the Lancastrian side

  • John was the 13th Earl of Oxford

  • He was one of the commanders at the Battle

 

SIR EDWARD WOODVILLE

  • LIFE-TIME DEAD 1488

  • Edward fought for the Lancastrian side

  • Edward was the brother of Queen dowager Elizabeth Woodville

 

JOHN LA ZOUCHE

  • LIFE-TIME 1459–1526

  • John fought for the Lancastrian side

  • John was the 7th Baron Zouche, 8th Baron St Maur

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