CATHERINE OF ARAGON

Who was Catherine of Aragon and How long was she Queen of a consort of England?

 

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON CATHERINE OF ARAGON, QUEEN CONSORT OF KING HENRY VIII OF ENGLAND. CATHERINE WAS THE DAUGHTER OF THE KING AND QUEEN OF ARAGON AND CASTILE, FERDINAND II AND ISABELLA OF CASTILE, AS WELL AS THE MOTHER OF ENGLAND'S FIRST FEMALE MONARCH MARY THE 1ST OF ENGLAND.

TIME-LINE OF CATHERINE OF ARAGON

1485
  • 16TH DECEMBER Catherine of Aragon was born, she is the youngest daughter of Isabella I of Castile & Ferdinand II of Aragon in Archbishop's Palace, Alcalá De Henares, Castile
1489
  • MARCH 27TH.Treaty of Medina Del Campo, which agreed the marriage of prince Arthur of England to Catherine of Aragon was signed.
1497
  • 18TH JULY An amendment to the Treaty of Medina del Campo declared that Catherine would come to England when Arthur was 14 years old. Her dowry of 200,000 crowns would be paid in two installments.
  • 4TH October  Catherine’s brother john, prince of Asturias died
1498
  • 23RD AUGUST Catherine’s sister Isabella, princess of Asturias& queen consort of Portugal died
1499
  • 19TH MAY Catherine is married by proxy to prince Arthur of England
  • OCTOBER Prince Arthur wrote to Catherine thanking her for the "sweet letters" she had sent him:
1501
  • Her party included the Count and Countess de Cabra, a chamberlain, Juan de Diero, Catherine's chaplain, Alessandro Geraldini, three bishops and a host of ladies, gentlemen and servants. However due to high storms, the ship returned to spain.
  • Catherine was able to leave Laredo on the Castilian coast.
  • 2ND OCTOBER Catherine arrived at Plymouth and proceeded by road via Exeter . Catherine spent her first night in England at at Amesbury Priory .
  • 4TH NOVEMBER: Catherine met Arthur, prince of Wales at Dogmersfield in Hampshire. The couple had corresponded in Latin, in-between now and the marriage.  They found that they could not understand each other, since they had learned different pronunciations
  • 14TH NOVEMBER Arthur, married Catherine St Paul's Cathedral; both Arthur and Catherine wore white satin. The ceremony was conducted by Henry Deane, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was assisted by William Warham, Bishop of London and another nineteen bishops .Cecily of York, Viscountess Welles bore the train of Catherine of Aragon
  • Sir Nicolas Byron was created a Knight of the Bath by Arthur, at his wedding. Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham attended wearing a gown worth £1500.Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset ,who was first cousin to Arthur was 'chief answerer' at the marriage
  • After which followed was a bedding ceremony, laid down by Arthur,'s grandma Lady Margaret Beaufort: the bed was sprinkled with holy water, after which Catherine was led away from the wedding feast by her ladies-in-waiting. She was undressed, veiled and "reverently" laid in bed, while Arthur,, "in his shirt, with a gown cast about him", was escorted by his gentlemen into the bedchamber, while viols and tabors played. The Bishop of London blessed the bed and prayed for the marriage to be fruitful, after which the couple were left alone. This is the only public bedding of a royal couple recorded in Britain in the 16th century
  • 15TH NOVEMBER Tournaments are held day after Arthur,'s wedding. Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham was the chief challenger at the tournament
  • The couple spent the first month of their marriage at Tickenhill Manor
  • 28TH NOVEMBER The Spanish sovereigns hand over the first part of Catherine’s dowry
  • 21ST DECEMBER Catherine and Arthur, left Baynard’s Castle to live at Ludlow Castle, Wales
1502
  • Both Arthur and his wife Catherine had fallen ill. sweating sickness and consumption (tuberculosis). Catherine recovered, although she missed her husband’s funeral at Worcester Cathedral
  • 2ND APRIL Prince Arthur, Catherine’s husband died
  • 23RD APRIL The funeral of prince Arthur.
  • AUTUMN Talks are in process for Catherine to marry Arthur's brother. future Henry VIII England
1503
  • 11TH FEBRUARY Queen consort Elizabeth of York died.
  • 25TH JUNE Catherine is betrothed to prince Henry
  • AUGUST A dispensation is requested from the pope for Catherine to marry Henry
  • 30TH SEPTEMBER The new treaty for the marriage of prince Henry to Catherine is put is made.
1504
  • 26TH NOVEMBER Catherine’s mother Isabella I of Castile died
1505
  • JANUARY Catherine’s allowance is stopped
  • Catherine  had been mistress to her own court at Durham house. However was then faced with severe financial problems and after protesting to Henry VII was told to give up Durham House and join the court.
1506
  • FEBRUARY Catherine is visited by King Philip I Castile and his wife who is Catherine’s sister Juana. Catherine struggles and is unable to speak to her sister alone about her financial difficulties.
  • AUTUMN Catherine spends more time in prince Henry's company at the English court.
  • After Henry VII England finds out how much time, Catherine and his son Henry had been spending time with each other, he sends her away to Fulham palace. Using the country side being better place for her health as an excuse.
1507
  • Catherine holds the position of ambassador of the Aragonese crown in England. The first female ambassador in European
  • Catherine’s dowry demanded by Henry VII
  • Catherine and the prince Henry are kept apart for few months which the prince complained about.
  • SEPTEMBER King Ferdinand, Catherine’s father, sent Catherine two thousand ducats but the money was not nearly enough for her dowry
1508
  • SEPTEMBER. Catherine’s situation, gets worse and Fuensalida wrote to King Ferdinand asking him to send a ship to the Thames so that he and Catherine could return to Spain. Henry VII England is angry that not all Catherine dowry is still not been paid. In a response to this he broke of Catherine’s allowance yet again.
1509
  • 21ST APRIL Henry VII of England is dead and his son Henry is now King
  • the members of the privy council urged Henry to marry Catherine of Aragon. Henry visited Catherine in her private apartments and, after dismissing her servants, asked her to be his wife
  • 11TH JUNE Catherine married Henry VIII England
  • 24TH JUNE Catherine has a joint coronation with Henry, Henry is crowned Henry King of England, the eighth of his name, their coronation was followed by a great banquet in Westminster hall.
  • NOVEMBER  King Henry informs Ferdinand of Aragon that his daughter was pregnant: Henry words  "Your daughter, her Serene Highness the Queen, our dearest consort, has conceived in her womb a living child and is right heavy therewith”.
1510
  • 31ST JANUARY Catherine miscarries a girl
1511
  • 1ST JANUARY Henry, Duke of Cornwall, Catherine’s son is born and is titled Henry, Duke of Cornwall, guns were fired from the tower and the city bells were rung. Beacons were lit and free wine was distributed to all Londoners. The new prince was immediately created prince of Wales.
  • 22ND  FEBRUARY Catherine’s son prince Henry died
1513
  • King  meets Betty Blout, lady-in-waiting to Catherine. Betty is soon to become is mistress.
  • Catherine served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France
  • SUMMER Catherine  writes to Thomas Wolsey asking for the captured Louis d' Orléans, Duke of Longueville, that Henry sent from France to stay with her,to stay in the Tower of London instead while she was in Battle in Scotland.
  • Catherine rode north in full Armour to address the troops, despite being heavily pregnant at the time. The battle was between England and Scotland. Catherine was commander for the English and James IV Scotland for the Scots,
  • The result as a decisive English victory from Woburn Abbey.
  • Catherine sent a letter to Henry along with a piece of the bloodied coat of King James IV of Scotland, who died in the battle, for Henry to use as a banner at the siege of Tournai
  • NOVEMBER Catherine gave birth to a stillborn boy
1515
  • 8TH JANUARY Catherine gave birth to another still born son
1516
  • 23RD JANUARY Catherine’s king father Ferdinand II of Aragon, died. Joanna, Catherine sister is ruler now, along with her husband Philip I Of Castile, and Aragon.
  • 18TH FEBRUARY Catherine’s daughter the future Mary 1st England is born.
  • 20/21ST FEBRUARY Catherine’s daughter Mary is christened in the chapel of observant friars at Greenwich.
1517
  • Catherine has another miscarriage
  • 7TH MARCH: Catherine’s sister Maria of Aragon, died.
  • Evil May Day Catherine, appeals before her husband King Henry to spare the lives of the rebels for the sake of their wives and children,
1518
  • MARCH Catherine visited Merton college, Oxford. The visit was combined with a pilgrimage to the shrine of St Frideswide.
  • 10TH NOVEMBER Catherine gave birth to still born daughter
1519
  • 15TH JUNE Catherine learns that Henry's mistress, Bessie Blount has given birth to a son, Henry Fitzroy. She is upset and humiliated and begins to withdraw from court life
1520
  • Catherine’s nephew the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, paid a state visit to England and she is urged by Henry to enter an alliance with Charles rather than with France
  • JUNE Catherine attends the Field Cloth and Gold in France
1525
  • Anne Boleyn joins becomes one of Catherine’s Lady-in -waiting.
  • Henry VIII, takes an interest in Anne Boleyn
  • Princess Mary is sent to Ludlow, to have and establish her own court, Catherine is upset at being parted from her daughter
1526
  • Catherine of Aragon gives her approval to Erasmus’ book ‘the institution of a Christian marriage’. Catherine had been shown the book by Thomas More.
1527
  • Henry VIII England seeks a divorce from Catherine.
  • MAY Henry VIII ordered Cardinal Thomas Wolsey to arrange his marriage to Catherine to be annulled.
  • JUNE Henry tells Catherine they are to separate as they have been living in sin, Catherine is shocked.
1528
  • 13TH APRIL Pope Clement appointed Cardinal Wolsey and Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggi to examine all the facts and pass a verdict without possibility of appeal in respect of King Henry VIII petition for divorce.
  • Catherine has the public's support against the divorce. The people shout victory over your enemies whenever she is seen in the public eye.
  • At court, Catherine is isolated as people are in preference over Anne Boleyn to Catherine
  • OCTOBER 8TH Cardinal Campeggi eventually arrived in England.
  • Campeggio met with Catherine. He advised her to enter a convent and retire gracefully. Catherine made it plain that she intended to live and die a married woman.
  • NOVEMBER Catherine continued to fight the divorce, because of this, she is now forced to be separated from her daughter Mary
1529
  • APRIL Henry asked Catherine to choose those she wished to represent her during the forthcoming trial in respect of their divorce. Although she still refused to acknowledge the authority of the legatine court, she chose Archbishop Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Ely and St Asaph and her main supporter, John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester.
  • 6TH JUNE Catherine made a formal protest to Rome against the legatine court V
  • 18TH JUNE The trial of the validity of Catherine and Henry the VIII of England marriage begins
  • 30TH JULY Catherine’s trial was adjourned, to allow her petition to reach Rome. This caused serious problems for Thomas Wolsey
  • Chapuys was a Roman Catholic who was hostile to religious reformers such as Thomas  Cromwell.
1530
  • APRIL Catherine w rote to her representative in Rome, Dr Pedro Ortiz. she begged him to put pressure on the pope to find her marriage lawful.
  • 29TH NOVEMBER Thomas Wolsey died before standing trial in London.
1531
  • Catherine is banished from court
1532 
  • When Henry decided to annul his marriage to Catherine, John Fisher became her most trusted Councillor and one of her chief supporters
  • The Glass Of Truth is issued, which was a book written and published in relation to Henry VIII of England in his desire to annul his marriage to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. It is thought  that the book was written by  himself if not he had an influence in it.
1533
  • 25TH JANUARY Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn are married in private ceremony.
  • 28TH MAY Henry VIII England marriage to Anne Boleyn is classed as valid. Catherine’s marriage is declared null and void. By Archbishop Thomas Cranmer
  • Catherine’s former confessor is imprisoned. John Forrest is arrested and imprisoned for supporting Catherine than supporting the king.
  • JULY: Henry was furious with Catherine’s continual obstinacy and ordered her to move to the Bishop of Lincoln’s Palace
  • 7TH SEPTEMBER Anne Boleyn gives birth to a girl, the Future Elizabeth 1st of England.
1534
  • MARCH Pope Clement VII eventually made his decision. He announced that Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn was invalid.Henry reacted by declaring that the Pope no longer had authority in England.
  • Catherine refused to swear the oath of succession. She now feared for both her own and her daughter’s life. She only ate food prepared by trusted servants and kept a constant watch on all strangers.
  • JUNE the bishop of Durham was sent to make Catherine swear to the oath of succession. however, she steadfastly refused to take the oath.
  • 11TH JUNE The trial of John Fisher he appeared before a jury at Westminster Hall. This included Thomas Cromwell, Charles Brandon and Thomas Audley. To test their loyalty, Gertrude Courtenay and her husband, Henry Courtenay, were placed on the jury. They both agreed that he should be executed
  • 22ND JUNE the seventy-six year old John Fisher was decapitated on Tower Hill
  • SEPTEMBER Catherine’s health continued to deteriorate. her friend Maria de Salinas, lady Willoughby, begged permission to visit Catherine. but permission was denied.
  • NOVEMBER Parliament passed an act that stated that Henry VIII was now the Head of the Church of England.
1535
  • 6TH JULY The Execution of Thomas  More at Tower Hill
  • Catherine is transferred to Kimberton castle
  • DECEMBER Catherine made her will and wrote to her nephew, the Emperor Charles V, asking him to protect her daughter. She then penned one final letter, addressed to Henry, her "most dear lord and husband
  • Henry gave Chapuys permission to visit Catherine who was now considered to be dying. Mary was still refused permission to see her mother although Henry did agree to give thought to maybe reconsider this decision.
1536
  • Chapuys, the Spanish ambassador, arrived at kimberlite castle to see Catherine. He knelt at her bedside and kissed her hand. Catherine told him that she could die happy now she knew she was not abandoned. she asked him questions about King Henry and her daughter Mary.
  • Maria de Salinas, lady Willoughby, forced her way into Kimbolten castle to see Catherine, having been refused permission to visit.
  • 7TH JANUARY Catherine of Aragon died.at Kimberton castle, England
 
29th January 1536, Catherine is buried at Peterborough cathedral, Peterborough, England

EXTRA FACTS ON CATHERINE OF ARAGON

  • Catherine of Aragon was Queen consort of England for twenty-four years

 

  • Catherine’ was named after her Great-grandmother Catherine of Lancaster. She was also a great-great-granddaughter of Philippa of Lancaster. Both Catherine of Lancaster and Philippa were daughters of John of Gaunt making them granddaughters of Edward III of England. Consequently, Catherine was the third cousin of her father-in-law, Henry VII of England and fourth cousin of her mother-in-law Elizabeth of York.

 

  • Catherine was quite short with long red hair, wide blue eyes, a round face, and a fair complexion.

 

  • Catherine was educated by the tutor Alessandro Geraldine, who was known for his support, of Christopher Columbus expedition.

 

  • Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to the one-year-old, Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne

 

  • John Blanke was an attendant to Catherine of Aragon. John is one of the earliest recorded black people in England after the Roman period

 

  • Catherine testified that her marriage to Arthur was never consummated, as according to canon law, a marriage was not valid until consummated.

 

  • Catherine was very happy during the first few months of marriage with King Henry the VIII England. She enjoyed wandering in leisurely stages from "palace to palace and park to park". Catherine explained how Henry "diverts himself with jousts, birding, hunting and other innocent and honest pastimes, also in visiting different parts of his kingdom".

 

  • When Catherine was exiled from the court, Anne Boleyn took over Catherine’s rooms.

 

  • When Henry decided to annul his marriage to Catherine, John Fisher became her most trusted counsellor and one of her chief supporters

 

  • Catherine Was a member of the Third Order of Saint Francis

 

  • Catherine was forbidden to see her daughter Mary. They were also forbidden to communicate in writing, Henry offered both mother and daughter better quarters and permission to see each other if they would acknowledge Anne Boleyn as the new queen. However both mother and daughter refused.

FICTIONAL PORTRAYALS OF CATHERINE OF ARAGON

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