When was King Charles the 1st King of England? Why was King Charles 1st executed?


  • 19TH NOVEMBER: Charles Stuart was born the son of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, at Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline, Scotland
  • 23RD DECEMBER: Charles is baptized by David Lindsay, bishop of Ross, and created duke of Albany in the chapel royal at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh
  • 24TH MARCH: Charles father. James VI is king of England and Ireland
  • 25TH JULY: The coronation of James VI father as king of England and Ireland the first of his name.
  • JULY: Charles travels from Scotland Dunfermline palace, to England.
  • JANUARY: Charles is created and invested a Duke of York & a knight of the Bath
  • Robert Peake the elder, paints Charles portrait around this time.
  • Charles is invested an knight of the garter
  • 6TH NOVEMBER: Henry Fredrick Charles brother and heir to his fathers throne died, from typhoid fever
  • 7TH DECEMBER: The funeral of Henry Fredrick, Charles brother, over a thousand people walked in the mile-long cortege to Westminster Abbey to hear a two-hour sermon delivered by George Abbot, the archbishop of Canterbury. Charles was chief mourner for his brother
  • Charles is made Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay
  • 14TH FEBRUARY: Charles sister Elizabeth married Fredrick V, Elector Palatine and moved to Heidelberg.
  • James Ist England, Charles father began to rule without parliament
  • NOVEMBER: Charles is created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester
  • JANUARY: James VI dissolves parliament
  • Charles first met Henrietta Maria at the French court while he was travelling to Spain with the duke of Buckingham to discuss a possible marriage with the Infanta Maria Anna of Spain
  • 27TH MARCH: Charles father, James VI Scotland the 1st of England is dead, and Charles is now king of England, Scotland and Ireland
  • 11TH MAY: Charles married Henrietta Maria of France by proxy.
  • 13TH JUNE: Charles married Henrietta Maria of France in person.
  • the Cádiz expedition: naval expedition against Spain by English and Dutch forces.
  • 18TH JUNE The "Useless Parliament" refuses to vote Charles I the right to collect customs duties for his entire reign, seeking to restrict him to one year instead
  • JUNE-AUGUST: the useless parliament, is formed it gained its name because it transacted no significant business, making it 'useless' from the king's point of view.
  • AUGUST Over 40,000 killed by bubonic plague in London; court and Parliament temporarily moved to Oxford.
  •  The Netherlands and England sign the Treaty of Den Haag
  • An English colony is established in Barbados
  • 2ND FEBRUARY: The coronation of Charles as king of England, the first of his name. Charles fined individuals who had failed to attend.
  • 6TH FEBRUARY Parliament meets and refuses to grant funds to King Charles without redress of various grievances
  • MAY Charles nominated Buckingham as chancellor of Cambridge University in a show of support,
  • 12TH JUNE: The House of Commons launched a direct protestation attacking Buckingham.
  • 15TH JUNE King Charles dissolves Parliament after it refuses to grant him Tonnage and Poundage rights; imposes forced loans
  • 28TH JUNE King Charles expels Queen Henrietta Maria French attendants from court
  • JANUARY French ships seized in the English Channel, resulting in an undeclared war with France
  • The Siege Of Saint-Martin-De-Ré was an attempt by English forces under George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham to capture the French fortress-city of Saint-Martin-De-Ré, On The Isle Of Re
  • The Five Knights' Case: Against forced loans placed on them by King Charles I in a common law court. Thomas Darnell, John Corbet, Walter Earle, John Heveningham, And Edmund Hampden petitioned king's bench for a writ of habeas corpus to be set free.
  • FEBRUARY writs are issued by Charles I of England compelling every county in England (not just seaport towns) to pay ship tax by 1 March
  • 17TH MARCH Charles I reconvenes Parliament. Oliver Cromwell becomes an MP for the first time
  • 7TH JUNE: The petition of right: was a constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing
  • 23RD AUGUST: Duke Buckingham is assassinated, stabbed to death, at the greyhound pub in Portsmouth
  • Physician William Harvey demonstrates the circulation of blood in the body
  • Charles dismisses parliament and does not call it again until 1640
  • 29TH MAY: Charles son the future “Charles II England “is born St James's palace, London, England
  • Publication of the "Wicked Bible" by Robert Barker and Martin Lucas, the royal printers in London, an edition of the King James Version of the Bible in which a typesetting erratum leaves the seventh of the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:14) with the word not omitted from the sentence "Thou shalt not commit adultery". Copies are withdrawn and about a year later the publishers are called to the Star Chamber, fined £300 and have their licence to print revoked.
  • 4TH NOVEMBER: Charles daughter, Mary, princess royal is born, is born  St. James's Palace, London
  • MAY Charles revives medieval forest laws to raise funds from fines
  • 18TH JUNE: The coronation of Charles as king of Scotland the first of his name
  • 14TH OCTOBER: Charles son,” the future James II and VII,” was born at St. James's Palace, London
  • 7TH MAY William Prynne sentenced by the Star Chamber to a £5,000 fine, life imprisonment, pillorying and the loss of part of his ears when his Histriomastix is viewed as an attack on King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria
  • 20TH OCTOBER Charles I issues writs to raise ship money from coastal ports to finance the Royal Navy
  • First General Post Office opens to the public, at Bishopsgate, London.
  • 28TH DECEMBER: Charles’s daughter Elizabeth is born, St. James's Palace, London
  • A portrait of Charles done from the studio of Anthony Van Dyck,
  • 17TH MARCH: Charles daughter Anne of England is born, at St. James's Palace, London
  • 30TH APRIL King Charles issues a proclamation attempting to stem emigration to the North American colonies.
  • The Queen's House at Greenwich, designed by Inigo Jones in 1616 as the first major example of classical architecture in the country, is completed for Henrietta Maria
  • 26TH JANUARY King Charles I raises (with difficulty) an army and begins to march north to fight the Scottish Covenanters in the First Bishops' War
  • 27TH FEBRUARY Charles denounces the Covenanters
  • 25TH APRIL Charles issues a proclamation promising to pardon rebels
  • 14TH MAY Charles issues a further proclamation promising to settle the Covenanters' grievances and not to invade Scotland
  • 19TH JUNE Treaty of Berwick signed between the King and the Covenanters, ending the First Bishops' War.
  • 8TH JULY: Charles son Henry Stuart, was born in Oatlands Palace, Surrey
  • First Bishops' WarH
  • Second Bishops' War centred on the nature of the governance of the church of Scotland, and the rights and powers of the crown
  • 13TH APRIL TO 5TH MAY: The Short Parliament
  • 26TH OCTOBER, Charles forced to sign The Treaty Of Ripon
  • 5TH NOVEMBER: Charles daughter Anne of England, died at Richmond Palace, London
  • 15TH FEBRUARY: Charles accepts Triennial Act: the act requires that parliament meets for at least a fifty-day session once every three years. it was intended to prevent kings from ruling without parliament,
  • Irish Rebellion
  • MARCH-MAY – First Army Plot, an attempt to use the army to support the king against parliament.
  • 1ST DECEMBER The Grand Remonstrance, passed by the Long Parliament on 22nd November, is presented to King Charles
  • 4TH JANUARY Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. This is the last time any monarch will enter the House of Commons.
  • 23RD FEBRUARY: Charles wife, Henrietta Maria goes to the Netherlands with Princess Mary and the crown jewels
  • 27TH FEBRUARY– Charles rejects the Militia Bill
  • 5TH MARCH: long parliament passes the militia ordinance
  • 1ST JUNE: Nineteen propositions which as like a list of demands, the long parliament effecting which Hotham refused to admit Charles I to the Hull
  • 10TH JULY–30TH JULY – Charles besieges Hull in an attempt to gain control of its arsenal.
  • 22ND AUGUST: The First Civil War officially begins
  • 19TH SEPTEMBER: Charles'sWellingtonn declaration he declared that he would uphold "the protestant religion, the laws of England, and the liberty of parliament".
  • 23RD SEPTEMBER The Battle Of Powick Bridge This was the first major battle in the first civil war, between the royalist and the parliamentarians, Result: Royalist Victory
  • 23RD OCTOBER  The Battle Of Edgehill This was between the royalist and the parliamentarians, Charles as commander for the royalists along with his nephew prince rupert, Result Inconclusiv
  • 1ST NOVEMBER The Battle Of Aylesbury, This was  between the royalist and the parliamentarians prince rupert as commander for the royalists           Resul int parliamentarian victory
  • 4TH NOVEMBER -25TH APRIL The Siege Of Reading, This was  between the royalist and the parliamentarians. Charles and prince rupert as commanders for the royalists Result Royalist Garrison Surrendered
  • 12TH NOVEMBER The Battle Of Brentford This was between the royalist and the parliamentarians.  prince rupert as commander for the royalists Result          Royalist Victory
  • 13TH NOVEMBER The Battle Of Turnham Green between the royalist and the parliamentarians., Charles as commander for the royalists
  • 23RD DECEMBER The Bunbury Agreement
  • 19TH JANUARY English Civil War: Royalist victory at the Battle of Braddock Down secures dominance in Cornwall.
  •  3RD APRIL THE BATTLE OF CAMP HILL between the royalist and the parliamentarians.  prince rupert as commander for the royalists
       Result Royalist Victory
  • 18TH JUNE: The Battle Of Chalgrove This was between the royalist and the parliamentarians. prince Ruper as commander for the royalists
      Result Royalist Victory
  • 29TH JUNE: THE BATTLE OF CROPREDY BRIDGE, Charles is        
          commander for the Royalists.
       Result royalist victory
  • 1ST JULY – The Westminster Assembly of theologians ("divines") and parliamentarians is convened at Westminster Abbey with the aim of restructuring the Church of England.
  • 28TH JULY The Battle Of Gainsborough, This was between the royalist and the parliamentarians.  Oliver Cromwell is commander for parliamentarian
    Result Parliamentarian Victory
  • 10TH AUGUST -5TH OF SEPTEMBER: The Siege Of Gloucester, between the royalist and the parliamentarians. Charles and Prince Rupert are commander for the royalists
       Result Decisive Parliamentarian Victory
  • Cromwell's Soldiers' Pocket Bible. Published
  • 18TH SEPTEMBER The Battle Of Aldbourne Chase, between the royalist and the parliamentarians. prince Rupert as commander for the royalists
  • 20TH SEPTEMBER The First Battle Of Newbury, between the royalist and the parliamentarians. Charles and prince Rupert commander for the royalists
        Result Decisive Royalist Defeat
  • 2ND -12 OCTOBER Siege Of Hull, This is between the royalist and the parliamentarians. Oliver Cromwell is commander for parliamentarians
       Result Parliamentarian Victory
  • NOVEMBER The Siege Of Basing House  This was  between the royalist and the parliamentarians.  Oliver Cromwell is commander for the parliamentarians, Charles is commander for the royalists  
      Result Parliamentarian Victory
  • 1ST JANUARY Charles I opens the Royalist 'Oxford Parliament'
  • 24TH MARCH The Relief Of Newark, This was between the royalist and the parliamentarians. Prince Rupert is commander for the royalists
     Result Royalist Victory
  • 20TH APRIL -16TH JUNE. Prince Maurice, (Brother of Prince Rupert) is commander for the royalists
  • 28TH MAY – First English Civil War: Bolton Massacre: Royalist forces under Prince Rupert kill several hundreds of the town's defenders
  • 16TH JUNE: Charles daughter Henrietta of England is born at Bedford house, Exeter, England
  • 2ND JULY The Battle Of Marston Moor, This was between the royalist and the parliamentarians. Oliver Cromwell parliamentarians and prince Rupert, commander for the royalists
          Result Decisive Parliamentarian – Covenanter Victory
  • 14TH JULY – Queen Henrietta Maria leaves the country for France.
  • 13TH AUGUST- 2ND SEPTEMBER: The Battles Of Lostwithiel This was between the royalist and the parliamentarians. . Charles is commander for the royalists.
     Result    Royalist Victory
  • 19TH OCTOBER: Siege Of Newcastle. between the royalist and the Scottish covenanters .
     Result Decisive Scottish Victory
  • 27TH OCTOBER The Second Battle Of Newbury (English civil war) Charles. and Primnce Maurice are commanders for the royalists
     Result Indecisive
  • 25TH DECEMBER – Christmas falls on a date set aside for fasting by Parliament, whose supporters are enjoined to observe the fast
  • 10TH JANUARY: William laud executed at tower hill for treason by the long parliament.
  • The New Model Army formed by parliament
  • 14TH JUNE The Battle Of Naseby, This was between the royalist and the parliamentarians. Charles and Prince Rupert were commanders for the royalists and Oliver Cromwell were Commanders for the parliamentarians.
        Result Decisive Parliamentarian Victory
  • 23RD AUGUST UNTIL 10TH SEPTEMBER:  Prince Rupert is commander for the royalists
          Result Parliamentary Victory
  • 2ND MARCH – The Prince of Wales escapes from Cornwall into exile.
  • MARCH – Matthew Hopkins begins witch-hunting in the eastern counties.
  • 27TH APRIL Charles flees from Oxford in disguise.
  • 5TH MAY: Charles surrendered to a Scottish army at Southwell, Nottinghamshire, ending The First Civil War.
  • 22ND JULY: Siege Of Worcester
  • 30TH JANUARY  Scots hand over King Charles in return for £40,000 of army back-pay.Thomas Fairfax meets the King beyond Nottingham and escorts him to Holdenby House in Northamptonshire
  • MARCH – folk dancing and bear-baiting banned
  • 4TH JUNE –Charles taken to Newmarket as a prisoner of the New Model Army
  • 15TH JULY– Charles  is allowed (at the request of Fairfax) to meet his children (James, Duke of York, Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester, and Princess Elizabeth) for what will be the last time, at the Greyhound Inn, Maidenhead
  • 12TH  NOVEMBER, Charles escapes from Hampton court, but is captured and imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight.
  • 26TH DECEMBER Charles  signs a secret treaty with Scotland in which he promises to impose Presbyterianism in England in return for military assistance
  • 2ND MAY The Parliament of Scotland votes in favour of war with England on behalf of the King Charles.
  • 8TH MAY The Battle Of St Fagans. between the royalist and the parliamentarians. was a pitched battle in the second English civil war .
     result parliamentarian victory
  • 31ST MAY – 11TH JULY: The Siege Of Pembroke Oliver Cromwell commander for the parliamentarians result in a parliamentarian victory
  • The Battle Of Preston. Oliver Cromwell commander for the parliamentarians. Result Decisive Parliamentarian Victory
  • George Fox founds the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
  • 15TH SEPTEMBER: Treaty Of Newport
  • 6TH DECEMBER: The Rump Parliament
  • DECEMBER: The Pride’s Purge
  • 24TH DECEMBER Parliament presents the King with new demands which he rejects
  • DECEMBER: Charles was moved to Hurst castle
  • 3RD JANUARY– An explosion of several barrels of gunpowder in Tower Street, London kills 67 people and destroys 60 houses
  • 4TH JANUARY  The Rump Parliament passes an ordinance to set up a High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England.
  • 20TH JANUARY: Charles trial begins
  • 23RD JANUARY: Charles was removed from the court after 3 days questions
  • 27TH JANUARY: Charles declared guilty the death warrant of Charles I of England is signed by fifty-nine commissioners
  • 29TH JANUARY: Charles two children Henry and Elizabeth were permitted to visit him.
  • 30TH JANUARY: The execution of Charles 1st of England, Scotland and decapitation
Charles 1st of England was Buried on the 9th February 1649, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Windsor


  • Charles Stuart was King of England, Scotland and Ireland for twenty-four years.


  • Charles is the first and only king, executed for treason.


  • Charles had been a sickly child When his father James and his mother Anne left for Denmark. Charles was left with a guardian Lord Fyvie, who was a friend of his father. It wasn’t till 1604. When his parents felt he was strong enough to travel. That they felt he could come to England to be with the rest of the family. It was believed Charles had rickets. Attempts were made to strengthen his physique by making him wear heavy boots reinforced with iron. Charles also had a stammer that would follow him through life.


  • After becoming king, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many people opposed his policies, in particular, the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent.



  • Charles Wife Henrietta Maria was Roman Catholic. This angered the government and many feared that this may mean the restrictions on the Catholics may be lifted. When Charles was crowned on the 2nd February 1626 at Westminster Abbey Henrietta his wife, was not at his side, because she refused to participate in a Protestant religious ceremony. Distrust did grow among those who were in government with Charles.



  • In 1627 and 1628, Charles purchased the entire collection of the Duke of Mantua. This collection included work by Titian, Correggio, Raphael, Caravaggio, del Sarto and Mantegna. By the time of Charles's death, there were an estimated 1760 paintings, most of which were sold and dispersed by Parliament.



  • “Roundheads” was the name given to the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War



  • George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, was a favourite of Charles and his father James 1st of England. George was a suspected lover of his James 1st. He remained in high favour for the first three years of Charles reign until he was assassinated. The assassination of George Villiers broke Charles' hearts. However, his relations with his wife improved, the quarrel stopped and they became closer


  • Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice who fought regularly in the English Civil wars, were both nephews of Charles and sons of his sister Elizabeth.


  • King Charles was beheaded in front of the Banqueting House of the Palace of Whitehall on the 30th January 1649





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