CHARLES II OF ENGLAND

When did King Charles II, become King of England?

TIME-LINES AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON KING CHARLES THE II OF ENGLAND.

 
1630
  • 29TH MAY: Charles II born Charles  Stuart, the son of Charles 1st England and Henrietta Maria of France
  • Charles was  invested the Duke of Cornwall and the duke of Rothesay
  • 27TH JUNE: Charles was baptized in the chapel royal by the Anglican bishop of London, William Laud.
1631
  • 4TH NOVEMBER: Charles sister Mary is born, the future princess of Orange at st. James's palace, London
1633
  • 14TH OCTOBER: Charles brother the future James II of England is born at st. James's palace, London
1635
  • 28TH DECEMBER: Charles sister Elizabeth is born at St. James's Palace, London
1637
  • 17TH MARCH: Charles sister Anne is born at St. James's Palace, London
1638
  • Charles is invested Prince of Wales.
1640
  • 8TH JULY: Charles brother Henry Stuart is born at Oatlands Palace, Surrey
  • 5TH NOVEMBER: Charles sister Anne died of Tuberculosis, at Richmond palace, London
1641
  • 2ND MAY: Charles sister Mary married Prince William of Orange.
1642
  • 10TH JULY: The Siege Of Hull, This was the first major  Battle of the English Civil War, royalists against parliamentarians result in in parliamentarian victory
  • 10TH AUGUST – 7TH SEPTEMBER Siege Of Portsmouth - royalists against parliamentarians
       Result Parliamentarian Victory
  • 23RD OCTOBER: The Battle Of Edgehill, This was part of the English Civil War Charles accompanied his father Charles I of of England, to this battle royalists against parliamentarians
      Result Inconclusive
1644
  • 16TH JUNE: Charles youngest sister Henrietta of England at Bedford House, Exeter, England
  • 29TH JUNE The Battle Of Cropredy Bridge Part of the English Civil War. Charles father, Charles 1st England is a commander for the royalists along with his 2nd cousin prince Rupert.
        Result Royalist Victory
1645
  • 13TH JUNE: The Battle Of Naseby, part of the English Civil War royalists were against parliamentarians. Oliver Cromwell is commander for the parliamentarians, and Charles I is commander for the royalists Result in Decisive Parliamentarian Victory
  • 10TH JULY: The Battle Of Langport, part of the English Civil War.  Result Parliamentarian Victory
1646
  • 5TH MAY: Charles I England surrendered to the Scots
1648
  • Charles moved to Hague
  • 17TH--19TH AUGUST: The Battle Of Preston, which was the last battle at  end of the second English civil war, Oliver Cromwell is commander for the parliamentarian Result Decisive Parliamentarian Victory
  • Lucy Walter becomes Charles mistress
  • DECEMBER: The Pride’s Purge, This event led on to establishment of the what was known as  the Rump Parliament.
1649
  • 30TH JANUARY: Charles, was executed at Whitehall and Charles is now king of Scotland only.
  • 30TH JANUARY: parliament became the supreme power in England under the rule of Oliver Cromwell who ruled over parliament as lord protector of the new commonwealth from 1649-1658.
  • 9TH APRIL: Charles illegitimate son James is born by Lucy Walter is his mistress. in Rotterdam in the Netherlands
1650
  • 23RD JUNE: After Charles arrival in Scotland, Charles signs the Scottish covenant
  • 8TH SEPTEMBER: Charles sister Elizabeth died of pneumonia.at Carisbrooke castle.
  • 1ST DECEMBER The Battle Of Hieton between a Covenanter party and an English garrison.
1651
  • 1ST JANUARY: The coronation of Charles as king of Scotland
  • The Battle Of Inverkeithing, war of the three kingdoms
  • 25TH AUGUST: The Battle Of Wigan Lane. A battle during the third English civil war royalists against parlimentaries
       Result Parliamentary Victory
  • 3RD SEPTEMBER: A between the royalists and the parliamentarians,
        Result, Decisive Parliamentarian Victory
  • Charles is no longer king of Scotland and is deposed. Charles fled from the battle scene
  • 5TH SEPTEMBER: Charles and Richard Pendrel arrived at Frances Wolfe’s home
  • 7TH SEPTEMBER, Charles left Boscobel for Moseley old hall
  • 11TH SEPTEMBER: Charles continued through chipping Campden and then to Cirencester.
  • 16TH SEPTEMBER: Charles set out and reached the manor house, castle Cary.
  • 22ND SEPTEMBER: Charles rode with Juliana Coningsby, a niece of lady Wyndham to Charmouth, pretending to be a runaway couple.
  • 5TH OCTOBER: Charles spent his days at Stonehenge,
  • 16TH OCTOBER: The King and lord Wilmot landed in France at Fécamp, near Le Havre. did not return to England for nine years.
1657
  • Charles fitz Charles is born, Charles illegitimate son by Catherine Pegge
1658
  • 3RD SEPTEMBER: Oliver Cromwell died of septicemia following his urinary infection. Whitehall, London, the protectorate
1660
  • 4TH APRIL: The declaration of Breda issued.
  • 25TH APRIL: The convention parliament began
  • 25TH MAY: Charles arrived in Dover
  • 29TH MAY: Charles reached London and   isnamed  king of England, Ireland and Scotland, oak Apple day or Royal Oak Day is introduced as a public holiday. to commemorate the restoration of the English monarchy
  • AUGUST: The act of indemnity and oblivion was passed
  • 13TH SEPTEMBER: Charles brother Henry, Duke of Gloucester died at the Palace of Whitehall, London of smallpox.
  • 24TH DECEMBER: Charles sister Mary died,the  Princess of Orange at Whitehall Palace, London
  • 29TH DECEMBER: The end of the Convention Parliament
1661
  • 30TH JANUARY: Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to a posthumous execution, as were the remains of Robert Blake, John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton.
  • 23RD APRIL:The  coronation of Charles as king of England, Ireland and Scotland, the second of his name.Charles is crowned by  William Juxon, Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • 8TH MAY : The Cavalier Parliament. also known as the Pensioner Parliament for the many pensions is granted to adherents of the king
  • 23RD JUNE: The Marriage treaty was signed; for Catherine of Braganza and Charles, as part of the dowry, Portugal Cedes Bombay and Tangier to England and grants free trade with Brazil and the East Indies
  • Charles appoints Peter Lely as his court painter.
  • 1ST OCTOBER A yacht race from Greenwich to Gravesend is held between King Charles and his brother, James, Duke of York 
  • 20TH DECEMBER: The Corporation Act.is introduced . Restricting public office to members of the Church of England
1662
  • 16TH MAY The Hearth tax is introduced in England, Wales and Scotland.
  • 21ST MAY: Charles married Catherine of Braganza. A Portuguese princess in two ceremonies – a catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service at the chapel of Domus De
  • 24TH AUGUST  The Act Of Uniformity. Making mandatory in the Church of England the forms of worship prescribed in the new edition of the Book of Common Prayer.
  • 30TH SEPTEMBER: Charles and his wife Catherine of Braganza entered London with large procession. music and entertainment
  • 27TH OCTOBER Charles sells Dunkirk to France for £400 000
1663
  • FEBRUARY Parliament pressures Charles into withdrawing a proposed Declaration of Indulgence
  • 8TH  JULY King Charles grants a Royal Charter to the North American Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
  • 28TH SEPTEMBER: Charles illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy, is born by his mistress Barbara Villiers
1664
  • The Conventicle Act introduced, was an act of the parliament of England  that forbade conventicles, defined as religious assemblies of more than five people other than an immediate family, outside the auspices of the church of England
  • 5TH SEPTEMBER: Charles illegitimate daughter Charlotte Lee, is born by his mistress Barbara Villiers
1665
  • 4TH MARCH The  beginning of the Second Anglo-Dutch War(4th March 1665 – 3st July 1667),
  • 25TH     MARCH: Battle Of The Severn was the common wealth of England, against  the royal forces
       Result Commonwealth Victory
  • The Great Plague of London: that went on till 1665
  • 12TH JUNE the city of New Amsterdam in the Province of New York is reincorporated as New York, named after James, Duke of York, and the first Mayor appointed
  • 13TH JUNE: The Battle Of Lowestoft England against England against the Dutch republic,
       Result English Victory
  • 7TH JULY Charles and  the Royal court leave London to avoid the plague, moving first to Salisbury, then (from 25 September) Oxford.
  • 31ST OCTOBER – Parliament passes the Five Mile Act preventing non-conformist ministers from coming within five miles of incorporated towns or the place of their former livings
  • 28TH DECEMBER: Charles illegitimate son is born George Fitzroy by his mistress Barbara Villiers
1666
  • 1ST FEBRUARY The Royal court returns to London as the Great Plague of London subsides
  • 2ND SEPTEMBER: Great Fire of London, began in a bakehouse on pudding lane. fanned by a strong easterly wind and fed by stockpiles of wood and fuel that had been prepared for the coming colder months, the fire eventually consumed about 13,200 houses and 87 churches, including St Paul’s cathedral
  • 6TH SEPTEMBER– Cestui que Vie Act passed by Parliament to provide for disposal of the property of missing persons.
  • 27TH OCTOBER: Robert Hubert. who was executed following his false confession of starting the great fire of London
1667
  • 9TH-14TH JUNE: The raid on the Medway
1668
  • 13TH FEBRUARY – Charles  mediates a peace treaty between Spain and Portugal.
  • APRIL: Charles began an affair with Eleanor "Nell" Gwyn the actress
  • James, Duke of York, brother of Charles, the heir to the throne, secretly takes Eucharist in the Roman Catholic Church.
1669
  • 10TH SEPTEMBER: Charles  mother Henrietta Maria died at Château De Colombes, Colombes, France
1670
  • Charles illegitimate son Charles Beauclerk, is born by his mistress, Nell Gwynne.
  • 1ST JUNE Treaty Of Dover was a treaty between England and France
  • 30TH JUNE: Charles sister: Henrietta of England died, at château de saint cloud, France
  • Charles gave his mistress Barbara Palmer, the famed Nonesuch palace
1671
  • 9TH MAY Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. He is immediately caught because he is too drunk to run with the loot. He would later be condemned to death and then mysteriously pardoned and exiled by King Charles II.
1672
  • 15TH MARCH: The royal declaration of indulgences was Charles, attempt to extend religious liberty to protestant nonconformists and roman Catholics in his realms.
  • 17TH MARCH Third Anglo-Dutch War – England declares war on the Dutch Republic 1672–1674
  • 29TH JULY: Charles Lennox, illegitimate son of Charles  is born by his mistress Louise De Kérouaille
 
1673
  • 8TH MARCH – Under pressure from Parliament,  Charle withdraws the Royal Declaration of Indulgence
  • 29th MARCH – The Test Act is passed, preventing Roman Catholics from holding public office.
  • 23RD NOVEMBER – Charles brother, James, Duke of York, marries Mary of Modena, they meet for the first time at the ceremony.
1674
  • 9TH FEBRUARY England and the Dutch Republic sign the Treaty of Westminster ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
  • 26TH MARCH – Theatre Royal, Drury Lane re-opens, having been rebuilt after the Great Fire of London
  • 23RD MAY: Sir James Scott, Earl of Dalkeith, grandson of Charles II England, through his illegitimate son, James Scott, 1st duke of Monmouth is born.
  • Two skeletons of children are discovered at the White Tower (Tower of London) and believed at this time to be the remains of the Princes in the Tower. The remains are subsequently buried in Westminster Abbey.
1675
  • Charles was presented with the first pineapple grown in England
  • 21ST JUNE –The reconstruction of St Paul's Cathedral in London under Christopher Wren begins to replace that destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666
  • 10TH AUGUST King Charles II places the foundation stone of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in London
  • Charles issues a "Proclamation for the suppression of Coffee Houses" due to the political activity which occurred in the newly popular establishments
1676
  • Henry Scott, 1st earl of Deloraine, Henry Scott, 1st earl of Deloraine
1677
  • Charles makes Henry Purcell court musician.
  • 4TH NOVEMBER William of Orange marries Princess Mary of York at St James's Palace. Mary is the neice of Charles daughter to his brother James
  • The Monument to the Great Fire of London, designed by Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke is completed.
1678
  • 6TH SEPTEMBER – Titus Oates first presents sworn allegations of the "Popish Plot", a supposed Catholic conspiracy to assassinate King Charles II. On the 28TH September before the Privy Council he makes allegations against numerous Jesuits and Catholic nobles. Oates applies the term Tory to those who disbelieve his allegations.
  • 25TH OCTOBER – five Catholic peers accused of involvement in the "Popish Plot" are arrested at the instance of the House of Commons and committed to the Tower of London.
1679
  • 24TH JANUARY: The end of the cavalier parliament, Charles dissolved the exclusion crisis began the exclusion bill sought to exclude the king's brother and heir presumptive, James, duke of York, from the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland because he was roman catholic
  • 6TH MARCH: The habeas corpus parliament, beganknown as the first exclusion parliament, was a short-lived English parliament
  • 22ND JUNE – Battle of Bothwell Bridge in Scotland: Royal forces led by the Duke of Monmouth and John Graham of Claverhouse subdue the Scottish Covenanters. Result Government victory
1680
  • 17TH OCTOBER: Charles Fitz Charles, 1st earl of Plymouth, Charles illegitimate son died.
  • 21ST OCTOBER – Charles II's fourth parliament (the "Exclusion Bill Parliament", summoned in 1679) assembles. The term Whig comes to be used for those in favour of the Exclusion Bill and Tory for those who oppose
1681
  • Charles dissolved the English parliament and ruled alone
  • The Exclusion Crisis ended.
  • 22ND DECEMBER – Charles issues a warrant for the building of the Royal Hospital Chelsea for wounded and retired soldiers
1682
  • Barbara Villiers, Charles mistress had nonesuch palace pull down, and sold of material’s from it, due to gambling debts
  • 25TH AUGUST – following the Bideford witch trial, three women become the last known to be hanged for witchcraft in England, at Exeter
1683
  • 9TH JANUARY – Charles gives orders establishing the dates on which he will perform the "Touching the King's Evil" ceremony
  • MARCH 21ST -28TH. The oxford parliament also known as the third exclusion parliament.
  • 12TH JUNE The Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles  is discovered
  • 28TH JULY – The Lady Anne, the King's niece and fourth in line of succession, marries Prince George of Denmark in the Chapel Royal at St James's Palace, London.
  • The Rye House Plot: plan to assassinate king Charles II of England and his brother (and heir to the throne) James, duke of York.
1684
  • 5TH JANUARY – Charles  gives the title Duke of St Albans to Charles Beauclerk, his illegitimate son by Nell Gwyn.
1685
  • 2ND FEBRUARY: Charles suffered a sudden apoplectic fit
  • 6TH FEBRUARY: Charles  of England died at Whitehall palace, London
 
Charles II Of England, Was Buried on The 14TH February 1685 In
Westminster Abbey, London
 

EXTRA FACTS ON CHARLES II ENGLAND

  • Charles Stuart was king of England, Ireland and Scotland, for twenty-five years.

 

  • Charles was also known in history as the "Merry Monarch".

 

  • Charles was the son of the executed monarch, Charles 1st England, and a grandson of James VI Scotland and 1st England.

 

  • Louis XIV of France was a  first cousin to Charles through Henrietta Maria Of France.

 

  • Mary Princess of orange was the mother of the future William III England (orange). Mary was Charles II of England's sister.

 

 

  • The Escape of Charles from England in 1651 was a key episode in his life. Although only taking six weeks, it had a major effect on his attitudes for the rest of his life.

 

  • Charles II England, had no legitimate heir, only illegitimate children. Due to this, the throne got passed along to his brother James, after Charles’s death. Catherine, his wife had become pregnant at least three times. All of the pregnancies ended in miscarriage

 

  • The Popish Plot was a fictitious conspiracy concocted by Titus Oates that was between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in anti-Catholic hysteria. Oates alleged that there existed an extensive Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Charles II.

 

 

  • George Downing, who was a preacher, soldier, statesman, diplomat, turncoat and spy in this period. Is whom the famous Downing Street is named after.

 

  • Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland, was Charles most notorious mistress, she had five children to him, and all were acknowledged. Her influence was so great that she has been referred to as "The Uncrowned Queen. summer of 1662 she was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber despite opposition from Queen Catherine

 

POLITICAL OFFICES IN THE COURT OF CHARLES II ENGLAND

FICTIONAL PORTRAYALS OF CHARLES II OF ENGLAND

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