EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND

Who was the real King Edward IV of England, what role did he play in the Wars of the Roses?

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON KING EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND. EDWARD WAS THE BROTHER OF RICHARD III. HE WAS THE FATHER TO MISSING PRINCES IN THE TOWER AND FUTURE QUEEN CONSORT ELIZABETH OF YORK

TIME-LINE OF EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND

1442
  • 28TH APRIL: Edward was born the son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, at Rouen, Normandy. Edward is immediately baptized privately in a small side chapel.
1443
  • 17TH MAY: Edwards brother, Edmund, Earl of Rutland is born
1444
  • 22ND APRIL: Edwards sister Elizabeth of York, is born in Rouen
1445
  • Edward  succeeded as the Earl of March
1446
  • 3RD MAY: Edwards sister Margaret of York is born. in Rouen
1447
  • 30TH JULY Edwards sister Anne of York at the age of eight years married Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter, Henry was seventeen years old.
1448
  • Edward’s name was legally changed to Edward Plantagenet
1449
  • 21ST OCTOBER: Edwards brother George Plantagenet, is born
1450
  • 12TH JULY: Jack Cade Rebellion (popular revolt against the government of England)
1452
  • 2ND OCTOBER: Edwards youngest brother Richard is born, future Richard III of England
1453
  • AUGUST: Henry VI has a breakdown, which creates more division in the court
1454
  • DECEMBER Henry VI regained his mental capacity. He put Somerset back in control of the government.
1455
  • Start of The War Of The Roses
  • 3RD MAY  the King  is under  control of Edward’s father, Richard Duke of York, became Protector of the realm
  • 22ND MAY The First Battle of St Albans, Edwards father Richard Duke of York, and his cousin Richard 16th earl of Warwick are commanders. Henry VI of England is commander for the Lancastrians Edward is present at the battle. This battle saw the forces of Earl of Warwick, Earl of Salisbury and Richard Duke of York defeat the Lancastrians led by Duke of Somerset and the Duke of  Northumberland. Somerset was killed in the battle and Henry VI was captured.
      Result Decisive Yorkist Victory
1456
  • FEBRUARY Edward’s father, Richard Duke of York, was dismissed as regent when Henry resumed personal rule supported by Queen Margaret
1458
  • FEBRUARY; Edwards sister Elizabeth married John De La Pole.
1459
  • 12TH OCTOBER: Edwards father Richard Duke of York, and his cousin Richard 16th Earl of Warwick are commanders for the Yorkists. Henry VI is commander for the Lancastrians
       Result Lancastrian Victory
1460
  • JANUARY: Battle Of Sandwich Part of The Wars of the Roses
      The result (Yorkist Victory)
  • 10TH JULY: Battle of Northampton, Edward is commanders for the Yorkist along with his cousin Richard 16th earl Warwick, Henry VI of England is a commander to Lancastrian
         The result (York Victory) Henry VI is captured by Yorkists.
  • Edward is titled Earl of Ulster, Peerage of Ireland,  Earl of Cambridge
  • 16TH DECEMBER Battle of Worksop  Result Small Lancastrian Victory
  • 14TH NOVEMBER Edward is Constable of Bristol Castle
  • Battle of Worksop
        Result Small Lancastrian Victory
  • 30TH DECEMBER: Battle of Wakefield  Edwards father Richard Plantagenet Duke of York is dead, executed at this battle, along with his brother Edmund.
      The result (Decisive Lancastrian Victory)
  • Edward is now succeeded as the 4th Duke of York
1461
  • 2ND FEBRUARY: The Battle of Mortimer's Cross, Edward is commander for the Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeats Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales.
       The result ( Decisive Yorkist Victory)
  • 17TH FEBRUARY:  Richard Earl of Warwick's army is defeated by a Lancastrian force under Queen Margaret, who recovers control for her husband.
       Result. (Lancastrian Victory)
  • Henry V of England was rescued from imprisonment under the Yorkists
  • 4TH MARCH: Henry VI of England is deposed, and now Edward is king of England
  • 28TH MARCH: The Battle of Ferrybridge, Richard, 16th earl of Warwick, is commander
       The result (Indecisive Result)
  • 29TH MARCH: Edward and Richard,16th earl Warwick are commanders at this battle for Yorkist, and Henry Holland, (husband of Edward sister Anne) is commander for the Lancastrians.
       The result (Decisive Yorkist Victory)
  • 28TH JUNE: The coronation of Edward as king of England the fourth of his name.Edward was crowned by Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury. Edward's brother George became Duke of Clarence
  • NOVEMBER: Edwards brother Richard gained the title of Duke of Gloucester
1462
  • The Treaty of Westminster
1464
  • 25TH APRIL: The Battle of Hedgeley Moor Yorkist forces under John Neville defeat the Lancastrians under Sir Ralph Percy, who is killed
       The result, (Yorkist Victory)
  • 1ST MAY The secret marriage of Edward and Elizabeth Woodville
  • 15TH MAY: The Battle of Hexham Part of the Wars of The Roses. Richard Neville defeats another Lancastrian army, this one led by King Henry VI and Queen Margaret themselves. This marks the end of organized Lancastrian resistance for several years
       Result (Decisive Yorkist Victory)
  • 11TH JUNE A 15-year-truce between the kingdoms of England and Scotland is signed
1465
  • 26TH MAY The coronation of Elizabeth Woodville as Edward's Quen consort. Elizabeth is crowned by Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury
  • 24TH JULY Former King Henry VI of England is captured by Yorkist forces, and imprisoned in the Tower of London. His queen consort Margaret, of Anjou and Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, have fled to France
1466
1467
  • 11TH AUGUST: Edwards daughter Mary of York is born
1468
  • 3RD JULY: Edwards sister Margaret of York, married Charles the Bold duke of Burgundy
  • The Lancastrians surrender Harlech Castle to  Edward  of England, after a seven-year siege.
1469
  •  20TH MARCH: Edwards daughter Cecily of York is born.
  • 11TH JULY: Edwards brother, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence married Isabel Neville
  • 26TH JULY The Battle of EdgecoteMoor Result (Rebel Victory) Edward was subsequently captured at only by Richard 16th earl Warwick. he then attempted to rule in Edward's name, but the nobility, many of whom owed their preferment's to the king, were restive. a local rebellion arose in the north, and it became increasingly clear that Warwick was unable to rule through the king
  • 10TH SEPTEMBER: Richard 16th earl, Warwick is forced to release Edward.
1470
  • MARCH; Richard 16th earl of Warwick and Edwards brother George chose this opportunity to rebel against Edward iv again, in the Lincolnshire rebellion
  • 12TH MARCH The Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham), Edward  is commander for Yorkist. The House of York defeats the House of Lancaster.     Result (Royal Victory)
  • 2ND OCTOBER: Edward sailed from king's Lynn in two ships; and landed at Marsdiep Edward was forced to pay their passage with his fur cloak;
  • MAY: Richard 16th earl of Warwick fled to France and makes an alliance with the Lancastrian queen Margaret, of Anjou.
  • Sir George Ripley (alchemist) dedicates his book, The Compound of Alchemy, to the King Edward IV of England.
  • 13TH SEPTEMBER A rebellion orchestrated by King Edward former ally, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, forces the King to flee England to seek support from his brother-in-law, Charles the Bold of Burgundy
  • 3RD OCTOBER: Edward is being deposed and now the Earl of Warwick, Richard Neville releases Henry VI of England from the Tower of London and restores him to the throne., Edward flees to Flanders
  • 4TH NOVEMBER Edward so of the future Edward V is born in Westminster Abbey. Elizabeth Woodville, had sought sanctuary there from Lancastrians who had deposed Edward.
1471
  • 13TH JANUARY Edward visited his sister Margaret of York.
  • MARCH Edward returns to England, to reclaim his throne.
  • APRIL: Edward is back in England.
  • 11TH APRIL: Henry VI of England is deposed and now Edward is king of England again
  • APRIL: Battle Barnet: Edward is commander and his brother Richard, for the Yorkists, Richard 16th earl of Warwick, and Henry Holland, Edwards sisters husband are commanders for the Lancastrians. The Richard Earl Warwick is killed. The result (Yorkist Victory)
  • 4TH MAY The Battle of Tewkesbury Edward and his brother Richard are commanders for this battle, Margaret and her son Edward are commanders for the Lancastrians, Edward Margaret, of Anjou son is killed at this battle.
       The result (Decisive Yorkist Victory)
  • 21ST MAY: Henry VI of England, the deposed king is dead.
  • JUNE Edward’s son, Edward  created Prince of Wales
1472
  • 10TH APRIL-11TH DECEMBER Edwards daughter Margaret of York is born but sadly died at the end of the year.
  •   Edwards sister Anne of  York, Duchess of Exeter, divorced her husband Henry Holland.
  • The council of the north set up by Edward.
  • 12 JULY: Edwards brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, married Anne Neville
  • OCTOBER: Edward went to parliament for funding a military campaign,
1473
  • 17TH AUGUST: Edwards so of Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York is born
  • Edward’s son, Edward was established at Ludlow Castle on the Welsh Marches and was placed under the supervision of the queen's brother Anthony, Earl Rivers
1474
  • Edwards sister Anne of York, married for the second time, Thomas St Leger.
1475
  • JUNE: Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais
  • 4TH JULY Burgundian Wars: Edward lands in Calais, in support of the Duchy of Burgundy against France
  • 29TH AUGUST: The Treaty of Piquancy, peace treaty negotiated between the kingdom of England and the kingdom of France
  • 2ND NOVEMBER: Edwards daughter Anne of York is born
1476
  • 14TH JANUARY: Edward sister Anne of York Duchess of Exeter died.
  • DECEMBER: Jane Shore became Edwards mistress
1477
  • MARCH: Edwards son George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Bedford is born
1478
  • 15TH JANUARY Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, aged four, is married to five-year-old Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk
  • 18TH FEBRUARY: Edwards brother George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, is executed, rumoured to have been drowned in a butt of wine.
1479
  • MARCH: Edwards son George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Bedford died. age two years.
  • 14TH AUGUST: Edwards daughter Catherine of York is born
1480
  • 10TH NOVEMBER: Edwards daughter Bridget of York is born.
1482
  • 2ND AUGUST – Anglo-Scottish Wars: Richard, Duke of Gloucester invades Scotland, and captures Edinburgh
  • 24TH AUGUST Capture of Berwick: The Scots surrender the border town of Berwick-upon-Tweed to Richard, ending his campaign
1483
  • 9TH APRIL Edward died, after being fatally ill at Westminster, Middlesex, England
King Edward IV of England was buried on the 18Th April 1483 in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle

EXTRA FACTS ON EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND

  • Edward was King of England for around twenty-two years.

 

  • Edward was Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III of England. From the House of York, the line of Edmund of Langley on his father’s side. His mother Cecily, was a granddaughter of John of Gaunt.

 

  • Edward was 4th Duke of York,7th Earl of March, 5th Earl of Cambridge and 9th Earl of Ulster. He was also the 65th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

 

 

  • Edward had been accused of being legitimate, and that he was not fathered by

            Richard Duke of York, however, these claims were unfounded.

 

  • Edward was said to be tall, young and handsome, he was renowned for his love affairs and athleticism.

 

  • He inspired his men with a "vision" of three suns at dawn (a phenomenon is known as "parhelion"), telling them that it was a portent of victory and represented the three surviving York sons; himself, George and Richard. This led to Edward's later adoption of the sign of the sun in splendour as his personal device

 

 

  • When Edward married Elizabeth Woodville, he built new queen's quarters for her and let his mother remain in the queen's quarters in what she had been accustomed to.

 

  • Edward, mistress Janes shore was different from his other mistresses, he did not discard her as he did many of his mistresses, and was completely devoted to her. Jane Shore, according to the official records, was not showered with gifts, unlike many of Edward's previous mistresses. [Their relationship lasted until Edward's death in 1483

 

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POLITICAL POSITIONS IN THE COURT OF EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND

EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND IN FICTION ON SCREEN

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