THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR

The English Civil War was a series of armed Conflicts which was between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The first period was between the years 1642-46 . The Second period was between the years 1648 till 1649 ending with the execution of King Charles 1st of England. The third period English Civil War began in 1549 and ended in 1651.
 
What started these conflicts was when King Charles 1st of England raised his royal standard in Nottingham. The split between King Charles and Parliament reached a point that neither side was willing to back down over their principles that they held and war was inevitable. The country split into those who supported the king and those who supported Parliament – which was the classic ingredients for a civil war.
 
For the majority of this period. The two sides that fought eachother in the English Civil Wars were the Royalist, known as “Cavaliers”, of Charles I of England, against the Parliamentarian,known as “Roundheads”.Scottish Coventers were drawn in to these conflicts also.. The English Parliment Feared Irish Catholic troops could join the Royalist army,Parliament therefore requested the aid of the Scots. The Solemn League and Covenant was drawn up between the two . This agreement was an alliance between them and also military support.
 
 
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, in the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642-1679). It was later adopted by the Royalists themselves .Cavalier derives from the same Latin root as the French word meaning "horseman". William Shakespeare used the word cavaleros to describe an overbearing swashbuckler or swaggering gallant in Henry IV, Part 2, in which Shallow says "I'll drink to Master Bardolph, and to all the cavaleros about London".
 
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War. They were also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against Charles I of England and his supporters, the Cavaliers or Royalists . The goal of the Roundhead party was to give the Parliament supreme control over executive administration .The term "Roundheads" appears to have been first used as a term of derision toward the end of 1641, when the debates in Parliament in the Clergy Act 1640 were causing riots at Westminster .Some Puritans, but not all, wore their hair closely cropped round the head or flat. There was thus an obvious contrast between them and the men of courtly fashion, who wore long ringlets . England's many Puritans and Presbyterians were almost invariably Roundhead supporters, as were many smaller religious groups such as the Independents. However many Roundheads were members of the Church of England, as were many Cavaliers.
 
From 1639–51 the Scottish Covenanters, who were a national Presbyterian movement, governed Scotland, during the civil Wars of the Three Kingdoms. They supported the English Parliamentarians during the First English Civil War in return for the Long Parliament agreeing to the Solemn League and Covenant, which promised reform in England and support for the Scottish church settlement.
 
The first English Civil War was the beginning of the outbreak of the conflicts in 1642. These conflicts lead to the course of the war through to the surrender of the Royalist headquarters at Oxford in 1646.
 
In 1645 The New model Army was formed by the Parliamentarians, This army would last until 1660 after the Restoration. and would then be disbanded. The New Model army was different to normal armys of its time, it was intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country (including in Scotland and Ireland), rather than being tied to a single area or garrison. Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militiary. To achieve a professional officer corps, the army's leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords or House of Commons. This was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians. The New Model Army looked on a person’s ability rather than on your position within society or status. If you were good enough, you could even be an officer in it. One of the leading officers in the New Model Army had been a butcher. This removal of this social obstacle meant that the New Model Army was open to new ideas and social class meant nothing. Oliver Cromwell had strongley preferred that the men were strong believers like himself and many men in the New Model Army did become Puritans who knew that God was on their side.
 
The Second Civil war was the surrender of King Charles the 1st of England into the custody of Parliament early in 1647. Through to the outbreak of rebellions against Parliament in 1648, the defeat of the invasion of England by the Scottish Engagers, to the trial and execution of the King in 1649 .King Charles1st during this period, had took advantage of the deflection of attention away from himself to negotiate a secret treaty with the Scots, again promising church reform .On the 28th December 1647, under an agreement, called the "Engagement", for the Scots undertook to invade England on Charles' behalf and restore him to the throne on condition of the establishment of Presbyterianism for three years
In December 1648, troops of the New Model Army under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the Grandees in the New Model Army and the Independents. This event would be known as the Pride's Purge .The Pre-purge number of members who were still eligible to sit in the house of Parliment was five-hundred and seven, but eighteen seats were vacant and a further eighteeen  members had not sat for a long time which meant that there were four hundred and seventy-one were active members. After the purge just over two-hundred members sat in what would become known as the Rump Parliament The purge was not over in one day, and a military watch was kept on the entrance until 12th December. By then fourty-five members had been imprisoned of which twenty-five were released before Christmas. The Rump now had a majority that would establish a Republic. Any doubts the remaining members may have had over the wisdom of this course were suppressed by the presence of the Army in great numbers. On the 4th January 1649 an Ordinance was passed to try the King for treason;
 
Following the trial of Charles I in January 1649, fifty-nine commissioners (judges) signed his death warrant These commissioners would later be the subject of punishment following the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. On the 30th January 1649, King Charles was decapitated in Whitehall, London. By 6th February the House of Lords was abolished; the monarchy went the same way by the 7th February and a Council of State was then established on the 14th February. This period known as The Commonwealth began, which would last till 1660. During the period, fighting continued, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now referred to as the Third English Civil War.
 
 
The Third Civil War began with, the proclamation of Charles the Second in Scotland, after the execution of his father King Charles 1st of England .Charles attempted to regain the throne of the Three Kingdoms to the final defeat of the Royalist cause at the battle of Worcester however failed.
The Preston campaign of the Second Civil War was undertaken under the direction of the Scots Parliament, not the Kirk, and it took the execution of King Charles I to bring about a union of all Scottish parties against the English Independents. Even so, Charles II in exile had to submit to long negotiations and hard conditions before he was allowed to put himself at the head of the Scottish armies.
From 1649 to 1660 The Commonwealth was in power of England and Wales, and later Ireland and Scotland.
Oliver Cromwell took the lead in the Common Wealth, however, once Oliver died, His son Richard Cromwell took over in his role, with less successful results leading to the Restoration of The Monarchy under Charles II of England..
 
Overall from the period of the Begining of First Civil War till the end of The Common Wealth lasted for under twenty years.
 
There were three major battles in the English Civil War – Edge Hill (1642), Marston Moor (1644) and Naseby (1645) . In general level the nobility, landowners and Anglicans supported King Charles I while those in the towns and cities supported Parliament. However, this is a generalisation and there were noblemen who supported Parliament and there were towns such as Newark that supported Charles.

BATTLES IN THE ENGLISH WAR

NOTABLE PEOPLE IN THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR

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