HENRY II OF ENGLAND

Who was King Henry II of England and who were his children?

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON KING HENRY THE II OF ENGLAND. HENRY WAS THE FIRST IN LONG LINE OF PLANTAGENET MONARCHS

TIME-LINE OF HENRY II OF ENGLAND

1133
  • 5TH MARCH: Henry is born in Le Mans, France, the son of Empress Matilda, who was the daughter of Henry I England, and Geoffrey V, count of Anjou
1134
  • 1STJUNE: Henry brother Geoffrey, count of Nantes is born
1135
  • 1ST DECEMBER: Henry's grandfather, “Henry I England” is dead,
  • The Period Of The Anarchy Began civil war between those loyal to King Stephen in England and those loyal to Henry and his mother, Empress Matilda.
  • 22ND DECEMBER: Stephen Henry cousin is declared king of England.
  • 26TH DECEMBER The coronation of King Stephen the first of his name. Stephen was crowned by William de Corbeil, Archbishop of Canterbury
1136
  • 22ND JULY: Henry's brother; William Fitzempress is born.
1139
  • Matilda, Henry's mother, travelled to England by force with her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester and with her uncle King David I of Scotland
1140
  • Henry was in Anjou. where he was educated by Peter of Saintes.
1141
  • 2ND FEBRUARY The Battle Of Lincoln which was between King Stephen of England and Robert of Gloucester, Henry uncles, (Result  victory for Matilda and King Stephen is captured)
  • 14TH SEPTEMBER Rout Of Winchester: between those loyal to King Stephen in England and those loyal to Henry and his mother, Empress Matilda, Matilda, king Stephens wife wanted to swop her imprisoned husband Stephen for Empress Matilda’s brother, Robert of Gloucester, empress Matilda refused. The result of the battle was victory for King Stephen, as behind empress Matilda back, both king Stephen was exchanged for her half-brother Robert of Gloucester.as Roberts wife was working with king Stephens wife.
1142
  • Henry is sent to Bristol.
1143
  • 13TH NOVEMBER: Henry's grandfather on his fathers side, Fulk, king of Jerusalem died
1144
  • Henry returns to Anjou resuming his education under William of conches
  • 1ST JULY The Battle Of Wilton:  battle between King Stephen and Robert of Gloucester, Henry uncle. The Result, Of The Battle Was His Uncle Won The Battle, However King Stephen Did Manage To Escape.
1147
  • Henry returns to England, at age 14years
1149
  • Henry met with the king of Scotland and Ranulf De Gernon, 4th earl of Chester at Carlisle,
1150
  • Henry is made Duke of Normandy by his father Geoffrey
1151
  • 7TH SEPTEMBER; Henrys father Geoffrey Plantagenet , count of Anjou died in Château-Du-Loir, France
  • Henry is invested Duke of Normandy count of Anjou and Maine
1152
  • Henry is invested as Duke of Aquitaine and count of Poitiers
  • 18TH MAY: Henry married Eleanor of Aquitaine
1153
  • Henry returns to England
  • The Period Of Anarchy Ended (End To Civil War) Result: Treaty Of Wallingford: Stephen remains king, but with Henry as designated heir
  • The Treaty of Wallingford,
  • New coin, called The Awbridge silver penny, was issued
  • 23RD SEPTEMBER: Henry's son Geoffrey is born.
1154
  • 25TH OCTOBER: King Stephen of England is dead, and now Henry is king of England
  • Theobald Of Bec archbishop of Canterbury is regent of England until Henry can come and be crowned.
  • 19TH DECEMBER: The coronation of Henry as king; the second of his name, joint coronation with his wife Eleanor, by Archbishop of Canterbury Theobald of Bec
1155
  • JANUARY: Thomas Becket is lord chancellor to Henry.
  • 28TH FEBRUARY: Henry ‘s, son Henry is born. later to be known as “Henry the young king
  • The Papal bull Laudabiliter gives the King of England lordship over Ireland.
1156
  • 6TH JANUARY: Henry's daughter, Matilda of England is born at Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England
  • APRIL: Henry's first son, William died aged 3years at Wallingford Castle, Berkshire
1157
  • JULY The Battle Of Ewloe: Battle between England and Wales, Henry is commander for the English, Owain Gwynedd.(Welsh prince) for Wales. Result Welsh Victory
  • Henry grants a charter to the merchants of Lincoln
  • Henry successfully gets the return of Cumberland, Westmorland & Northumbria
  • 8TH  SEPTEMBER: Henry's son Richard is born (future Richard I England)” Lion Heart
1158
  • 27TH JULY: Henry's brother, Geoffrey, count of Nantes died at Rouen or Argentan, Normandy
  • The newborn Margaret of France is shipped to England, as the future wife of the three-year-old Henry the Young King. The Vexin region is promised as her dowry, and is put under the care of the Knights Templar, until her future husband is old enough to take control of it
  • English Pound Sterling (currency) is introduced.
  • 29TH NOVEMBER Eleanor of Aquitaine arrives in Salisbury, Wiltshire on royal business.
1159
  • Henry spends time in Normandy for three years
1161
  • 13TH OCTOBER: Henry's daughter, Eleanor of England is born at Domfront castle, Normandy
1162
  • 3RD JUNE: Thomas Becket is Archbishop of Canterbury, Henry believed having him as archbishop, his friend and chancellor, would weaken the church’s influence
1163
  • Henry returns from Normandy to England, he sets his mind on controlling crime, by the tasks of seizing the belongings of thieves and fugitive and reforming the royal court
1164
  • JANUARY A council of nobles and bishops, meeting with Henry at Clarendon Palace, passes the Constitutions of Clarendon, which attempts to restore royal jurisdiction over the Church, in the Kingdom of England
  • 8TH OCTOBER: Trial of Thomas Becket at Northampton castle. on allegations of contempt of royal authority and malfeasance in the chancellor's office. convicted on the charges, Becket stormed out of the trial and he left the country and headed for France and seek refuge with Henry enemy, Louis VII France.
  • 2ND NOVEMBER Thomas Becket, having contended with Henry over the power of secular courts, is found guilty of contempt of court, and exiled to France, where he solicits support from the Pope and the King of France
1165
  • OCTOBER: Henry's daughter, Joan of England is born
  • The Battle Of Crogan: This was  Battle between Wales and England, Henry was commander for the English and Owain Gwynedd. for the Welsh. Result Decisive Welsh Victory
  • Henry begins an affair with Rosamund Clifford
1166
  • JULY Henry conquers Brittany, granting the territory to his son Geoffrey
  • Henry enacts the Assize of Clarendon, reforming English law and defining the legal duties of sheriffs.
  • William Marshal, described as "the greatest knight that ever lived," is knighted.
  • 24TH DECEMBER: Henry's son John is born (The future king of England) at Beaumont Palace, Oxford
  • The assize of Clarendon beginning of the transformation of English law
1167
  • 10TH SEPTEMBER: Henry's mothers, Empress Matilda, died
  • Henry prohibits English students from attending the University of Paris; many settle at the University of Oxford.
1168
  • 1ST  FEBRUARY: Henry's daughter, Matilda of England married Henry the Lion
  • Prince Richard of England becomes Duke of Aquitaine
1169
  • Henry and Louis held fresh peace talks at Montmirail
  • JANUARY: Henry and Louis VII of France sign a peace treaty which includes the betrothal of their respective heirs, twelve-year-old Richard of England and nine-year-old Alys, Countess of the Vexin Alys comes to England as Henry ward.
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the English court of Henry, to establish her own court in Poitiers. It will become known as a centre of courtly love.
1170
  • 14TH JUNE: Henry has his son Henry crowned as  Henry the young king by the archbishop of York ” Roger De Pont L'évêque, Thomas Becket, reacted to by then excommunicated Roger Archbishop of York, in late 1170, which angered Henry.
  • DECEMBER Henry,  when word reaches him in France of Thomas Becket's latest actions, utters words that are interpreted by his followers as a wish for the archbishop's death.
  • 29TH DECEMBER: The murder of Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral, hacked to death
  • Henry began an affair with Nest Bloet, Welsh noblewoman
1171
  • Henry invades Ireland with the aid of the ousted King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada
  • Henry is the first lord of Ireland
1172
  • The Compromise of Avranches, This marked the reconciliation of Henry with the catholic church after the Becket controvey
  • Henry and Humbert III, Count of Savoy agree to wed their respective heirs, John of England and Alicia. The alliance never occurs because Henry's elder heir, Henry the Young King, becomes jealous over the castles which the elder Henry promises to the couple, and stages a rebellion which will take the elder Henry two years to put down. By that time, Alicia has died
  • 27TH AUGUST The Marriage to Margaret of France and the second coronation   of Henry the young King. Young Henry was crowned this time by  Rotrou, Archbishop of Rouen at Winchester Cathedral.
1173
  • FEBRUARY: Henry is given Toulouse for him and his heirs.by count Raymond V.
  • MARCH The Revolt of 1173–74 was rebellion by three of Henry sons, Henry the young king, Geoffrey and Richard along with his wife Eleanor against him. the result was, Henry sons had to respect Henry rule.
  • 17TH OCTOBER The Battle Of Fornham (part of the revolt 1173-74) English rebels against royalist. result rebel defeat. royalists capture Robert De Beaumont who was a following of Henry the young king
1174
  • Henry's daughter Eleanor of England, at 12yeard, married Alphonso VIII, king of Castile and became Queen consort of Castile.
  • Henry went public with his affair with Rosamund Clifford
  • 12TH JULY: Henry performed a public act of penance at Canterbury, where he publicly confessed his sins, and then allowed each bishop present, including Foliot, to give him five blows from a rod, then each of the 80 monks of Canterbury cathedral gave the king three blows. the king then offered gifts to Becket's shrine and spent a vigil at Becket's tomb
  • 13TH JULY: The Battle Of Alnwick between England and Scotland, Battle of Alnwick: William I of Scotland is captured by Ranulf de Glanvill, after attacking England in support of the Revolt of 1173–1174 against Henry and Henry occupies part of Scotland Result was  William I Scotland was captured, and brought    back to Newcastle, which led on to The   Treaty Of Falaise
  • Henry  acknowledges Rosamund Clifford as his mistress.
  • Henry begins living openly with his friend Rosamund Clifford, raising suspicions about their relationship & alienating Henry's wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine
  • DECEMBER The Treaty Of Falaise: agreement between  William I, king of Scots, and Henry II, king of England.
1175
  • The Treaty of Windsor: territorial agreement made during the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland, signed in Windsor, Berkshire by king Henry II of England as lordship of Ireland
1176
  • JANUARY The Assize of Northampton is enacted in England
  • Henrys illegitimate son is born,  William Longspur, 3rd earl of Salisbury whose mother was Ida De Tosny, a royal mistress and ward of Henry.
  • Juries were introduced in petty assizes. assizes exercised both civil and criminal jurisdiction
1177
  • 13TH FEBRUARY: Henry's daughter, Joan of England married William II of Sicily, and became queen consort of Sicily
1180
  • 18TH SEPTEMBER: Louis VII France is dead, and his son Philip is king of England, no longer junior king, but senior king.
1181
  • Henry's son Geoffrey married Constance duchess of Brittany
1182
  • Henry the young king, starts asking for more to lands of his father Henry, so to be more independent with respect., Henry refuses.
1183
  • Open war breaks out again, Henry son, Henry the young king and his brother Richard begin a joint campaign in Aquitaine, however before it takes of, Henry the young king catches a fever
  • 11TH JUNE Henry's son Henry the young king died
1185
  • Henry knights his heir John of England, and sends him to Ireland to enforce English control.
1186
  • 19TH AUGUST: Henry's son Geoffrey is now duke of Brittany Paris, France.
1188
  • 3RD FEBRUARY: Henry arranged for his son Geoffrey’s widow Constance of Brittany to be remarried again to Ranulf De Blondeville, 6th earl of Chester.
  • Richard Lionheart allies with Philip II of France against his father, Henry.
1189
  • Philip II of France and Henry begin assembling troops, to wage the Third Crusade.
  • Henry's son Richard feared, that his father would make John his brother king above him, and this led to another rebellion being broke out
  • 28TH JUNE: Henry's daughter, Matilda of England died at Brunswick, lower Saxony
  • 4 JULY: Henry II of England ends a war against Philip II of France & Richard, by agreeing to their terms: he pays Philip 20,000 marks, and recognizes Richard as the heir to the English throne. Henry is brokenhearted to find that his second heir, John, had also allied against him in the war.
  • 6TH JULY: Henry died at Chinon Castle, France, aged 56 years.
 
Henry II of England was buried at Fontevraud Abbey, France

EXTRA FACTS ON HENRY II OF ENGLAND

  • Henry was king Of England for thirty- five years and was Also known as Henry Curtmantle. Henry FitzEmpress and Henry Plantagenet.
 
  • Henry was the Son of Matilda The Empress and the grandson of Fulk, King of Jerusalem, on his father’s side. Great Grandson of  William The Conqueror and great grandson of Malcolm II king of Scotland through his mother’s bloodline
 
  • He was the First of a long line of Plantagenet Kings.
 
  • Henry was the Cousin of King Stephen Of England his predecessor.
 
  • The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. Plantagenet has little historical justification. It seems to be originated as a nickname for Count Geoffrey and has been variously explained as referring to his practice of wearing a sprig of broom in his hat or, more probably, to his habit of planting brooms to improve his hunting covers. It was not, however, a hereditary surname. Plantagenet  name was more adopted by Richard the 3rd duke York, who was the father of Edward IV England and Richard III England. And historians since.
 
  • Henry and his two sons Richard I, and John I of England, would be known as “The Angevin Empire” ruled over an area covering half of France, all of England, and parts of Ireland and Wales, and had further influence over much of the remaining British Isles. King John however lost control of all his continental possessions, apart from Gascony in southern Aquitaine.
 
  • Henry was said to have understood a wide range of languages, including English, but spoke only Latin and French
 
  • Henry was Eleanor of Aquitaine’s second husband, and her distant cousin, she had been Queen consort of France and the wife of Louis VII of France, till her marriage had been annulled. Eleanor had two daughters from this marriage.Eleanor and Henrys son, “Henry The Young King” married louis vii daughter to his second marriage,
 
  • Henry sent his own son Henry to be brought up and live in the household of Thomas Becket. And it was said, that young Henry said that Thomas had showed him more love than his own father king Henry ever did.
 
  • Henry and Thomas Beckets were orignally friends, however the relationship became under strain, when it became clear, Thomas would favour and put the church first, before his king. Thomas challenged Henry on many issues, including Henry taxation policies. When Thomas realised how much this displeasured the Henry, Thomas went into exile for several years until his murder,
 
  • Alys of France, the daughter of Louis VII France, (Eleanor’s first husband) was contracted to Henrys son, Richard, she was brought to England as a ward to Henry at very young age of 8 years old., however it was said she actually became Henry mistress and may of even of been the mother of his illegitimate children.
 
  • Henry the Young King was the only King of England since the Norman conquest to be crowned in the lifetime of his father, however spent most of his reign, in strife with his father, wanting more authority to match his title as king

POLITICAL POSITIONS IN THE COURT OF HENRY II OF ENGLAND

FICTIONAL PORTRAYALS OF HENRY II OF ENGLAND

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