HENRY VII OF ENGLAND

 

Who was King Henry VII of England and how many children did he have? What changes and marks did he make during his reign.

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON KING HENRY THE VII OF ENGLAND .HENRY  WAS THE FIRST IN A LINE OF MONARCHS FROM THE HOUSE OF TUDOR TO SIT ON THE ENGLISH THRONE.THE TUDOR DYNASTY LASTED FROM 1485-1603.

THE TIME-LINE OF HENRY VII OF ENGLAND

 
1457
  • 28TH JANUARY Henry Tudor is born the son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort at Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales
1458
  • 3RD JANUARY Henry's teenage mother Margaret Beaufort married Sir Henry Stafford who was her second cousin.
1461
  • 4TH MARCH King Henry VI of England is deposed as King. Now Edward IV is King of England.
  • APRIL Pembroke castle Henry's home is captured.
  • After the Battle of Towton: Henry's uncle Jasper flees abroad, Henry and his mother live under the guardianship of William Herbert who is in control now of Pembroke castle, Henry lived here till 1469.
1470
  • OCTOBER  Edward IV is deposed as king of England, and now Henry VI is restored as king.
  • NOVEMBER: When the Earl of Warwick, Richard Neville  restored Henry VI to the throne, Jasper returned from exile and brought the young Henry to court
1471
  • APRIL: Edward IV England is restored to the throne of England, Jasper  and Henry flee to Brittany, where he spent most of the next 14 years under the protection of Francis II, Duke of Brittany
  • Henry's stepfather, Henry Stafford, died of wounds suffered at the Battle of Barnet, fighting for the Yorkists
  • 21ST MAY The deposed Henry VI of England died in the Tower of London
1472
  • JUNE  Henry’s mother Margaret Beaufort, married Thomas Stanley, the Lord high constable of England, Margaret’s   marriage was at first a marriage of convenience. through this marriage, his mother was permitted to return to court and later was godmother to one of Queen Elizabeth Woodville’s daughters.
1474
  • Sir Roland de VELVILLE or VELEVILLE, Henrys illegitimate son born
1476
  • Francis II, Duke of Brittany, Henry’s protector falls ill, Henry is handed over and escorted to the Breton port of Saint-Malo
1478
  • Henry is titled Earl of Richmond
1482
  • 3RD JUNE: Henry's grandmother Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso died. (The mother of Margaret Beaufort)
1483
  • 9TH APRIL Edward IV of England is dead and now his young son, Edward V is King of Engl;and and his uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester is Lord Protector.
  • 26TH JUNE  Edward V has now been deposed and his uncle Richard has claimed the English throne and now King.
  • When Richard III seized the throne, he passed an act of parliament stripping Margaret, Henry's mother, of all her titles and estates, however, he stopped short of a full attainder by transferring her property to her husband. Thomas Stanley.
  • Margaret Beaufort, Henry's mother is now serving Queen Anne Neville, but is also secretly plotting with the Dowager Queen, Elizabeth Woodville, on a marriage between her son Henry and Elizabeth of York, who is the eldest daughter of Elizabeth Woodville.
  • Henry's mother Margaret Beaufort, was actively promoting Henry, as an alternative to Richard III as king, this was even despite her being married to a Yorkist supporter, Lord Thomas Stanley
  • OCTOBER The Buckingham rebellion, This was a failed but significant uprising, or collection of uprisings n England and parts of wales against Richard III of England. seven ships from Brittany carrying over 500 Breton soldiers, Henry Tudor and many of his supporters were to have risen simultaneously against Richard III. A gale prevented this planned landing from being successfully carried out, and in England, a premature uprising in Kent forewarned Richard that Buckingham had changed sides
  •  25TH DECEMBER  At Renne's cathedral, Henry pledged to marry the eldest daughter of Edward IV, Elizabeth of York, who was also Edward’s heir since the presumed death of her brothers, the princes in the Tower.
1485
  • AUGUST 7TH: Henry sails from France, landing in wales.
  • 22ND AUGUST Battle of Bosworth, (Part of The Wars of The Roses) A battle between the forces of Richard III and the Forces of Henry Tudor. Henry wins the English crown over Richard III of ngland
        result Tudor victory
  •  Thomas Howard had been, captured and committed to the Tower of London as a Prisoner. Thomas was the son of John Howard Duke of Norfolk.
  • Henry entered the capital in triumph. Elizabeth of York was placed in the London household of his mother, Margaret Beaufort.
  • Edward Plantagenet, cousin of Elizabeth of York only ten years old, was kept as a prisoner in the tower of London
  • 30TH OCTOBER: Henry is crowned by Thomas Bourchier  in Westminster Abbey, he is now
  • 7TH NOVEMBER. Henry’s  uncle Jasper was married to Catherine Woodville, sister to queen dowager Elizabeth Woodville
  • 10TH DECEMBER The House of Commons, through their speaker Thomas Lovell, urged the Henry to act on his promise to marry "that illustrious lady Elizabeth of York the daughter of King Edward IV"
1486
  • 18TH JANUARY: Henry marries Elizabeth of York. The service was conducted by Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury
  • APRIL The Stafford and Lovell Rebellion. Francis Lord Lovell and Humphrey Stafford sought sanctuary at Colchester Abbey. The conspirators hoped to restore the Yorkist monarchy.
  • Humphrey Stafford is executed at Tyburn.
  • 19TH SEPTEMBER: Henry’s son Arthur is born, Arthur is titled Duke of Cornwall from birth.
  • The Baptism of Henry’s son Arthur, in Winchester Cathedral and named after the famous British hero whose fabulous exploits fill the pages of Geoffrey of Monmouth. Initially, he was put into the care of women and his nursery at Farnham. This was headed by Dame Elizabeth Darcy. Anne of York, Elizabeth of York's sister carried the chrisom.
  • From 1486–1501, John Dynham, served as Lord High Treasurer of England and Lord Chancellor of Ireland. he was one of the few men to serve as Councillor to kings Edward IV, Richard III and Henry VII and was trusted by all of them.
  • First recorded use of the word 'football' to describe a game in which the ball is kicked
1487
  • FEBRUARY Lambert Simnel appeared in Dublin and claimed to be Edward, Earl of Warwick, son and heir of George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, the brother of Edward IV John de, Earl la Pole of Lincoln, nephew of the Yorkist kings, was the leader of the conspiracy.
  • 12TH FEBRUARY  Dowager Queen Elizabeth Woodville left court and spent the next five years of her life living at Bermondsey Abbey
  • 24TH MAY Lambert Simnel was crowned in Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin as "King Edward VI"
  • 16TH JUNE Battle Of Stoke Field . This was considered the last Battle of The Wars of the Roses . It was a  decisive engagement in an attempt by leading Yorkists to unseat Henry Tudor  in favour of the pretender Lambert Simnel. The rebellion was led by John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, and Francis Lovell, 1st Viscount Lovell. John de, Earl la Pole was killed at the battle. Result Tudor victory
  • NOVEMBER Henry  gave Margaret Plantagenet, in marriage to his cousin, Sir Richard Pole, whose mother was the halff-sister of the king's mother, Margaret Beaufort.
  • 25TH NOVEMBER: Elizabeth of York is crowned queen consort of England. Henry makes William Courtenay a Knight Bachelor
  • Edward Plantagenet, was briefly displayed in public at St Paul’s Cathedral in 1487 in response to the presentation of the impostor Lambert Simnel as the "Earl of Warwick" to the Irish lords.
1488
  • The price of knitted woollen hats is fixed by law
1489
  • 26TH MARCH The Treaty of Medina del Campo between England and Spain. It established a common policy towards France, reduced tariffs between the two countries and agreed a marriage contract between Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon and also established a dowry for Catherine of 200,000 crowns
  • MAY Henry, restored Thomas Howard to the earldom of Surrey, although most of his lands were withheld, and sent him to quell a rebellion in Yorkshire
  •  Henry gives a city charter to Southwold.
  • A gold coin equal to one pound sterling, called a sovereign, is issued for Henry VII of England.
  • 28TH NOVEMBER Henry ’s daughter Margaret Tudor born,. Margaret was baptized in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. She was named after Margaret Beaufort, Henry’s mother.
  • 29TH NOVEMBER  Henry's son Arthur is made a Knight of the Bath, Arthur was appointed Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
  • King Henry VII gives a city charter to Southwold.
1490
  •  Perkin Warbeck, appeared and claimed to be Richard, the younger of the "Princes in the Tower". Warbeck won the support of Edward IV sister Margaret of Burgundy
1491
  • 8TH MAY  Henry's son Arthur is invested as a knight of the Garter, at Saint George's Chapel at Windsor Palace.
  • 28TH JUNE: Henry's second son Henry is born at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Kent. (Future HenryVIII)
  •  The baptism of Henry's son ,Henry by Richard Foxe, Bishop of Exeter,  
  • Perkin Warbeck landed in Ireland in the hope of gaining support for his claim
  • Henry invades France but at the Treaty of Etaples agrees to withdraw English forces in return for a large sum of money
  • 21ST DECEMBER The Truce of Coldstream secures a 5-year peace, between Scotland and England.
1492
  • 8TH JUNE Dowager Elizabeth Woodville died at Bermondsey Abbey
  • 2ND JULY Henry’s daughter Elizabeth is born
  • OCTOBER 2ND: Henry landed in Calais to lead a large army against the French king Charles VIII. Henry’s men, captured the town of Boulogne.
  • 3RD NOVEMBER: the treaty of Étaples is signed, making peace with France
  • Perkin Warbeck is expelled from France  under the terms of the Treaty of Etaples, by which Charles had agreed not to shelter rebels against Henry VII.
1493
  • Henry son Prince Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.
  • England imposes sanctions on Burgundy for supporting Perkin Warbeck, the pretender to the English throne
1494
  • Henry sent Sir Edward Poynings to Ireland to consolidate English rule there. Poynings drove out of Ireland the Yorkist pretender Perkin Warbeck, who then sought support from the Scottish king, James IV
  • MAY Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, recognises Perkin Warbeck as rightful King of England.
1495
  • MAY Henry’s son Prince Henry was appointed to the Order of the Garter
  • Henry commissions the world's first dry dock, at Portsmouth.
  • 3RD JULY Funded by Margaret of Burgundy(The sister of the late Edward IV England), Perkin  Warbeck landed at Deal in Kent. They are routed before Warbeck himself can disembark, and he retreats to Ireland and then to Scotland.
  • Poynings' Law comes into effect, placing the Parliament of Ireland under the authority of the Parliament of England
  • 14TH SEPTEMBER: Henry’s daughter Elizabeth died
  • Henry commissions the world's first dry dock at Portsmouth.
  • OCTOBER Parliament passes the Treason Act, still in force as of 2008
  • 21/26 DECEMBER:  Henry’s uncle Jasper Tudor died
1496
  • 24TH FEBRUARY Magnus Intercursus major and a long-lasting commercial treaty signed in February 1496 by Henry VII of England and Philip IV, Duke of Burgundy
  • 5TH MARCH Henry  issues letters patent to Italian-born adventurer John Cabot and his sons, authorizing them to discover unknown lands
  • 18TH MARCH: Henry's daughter Mary Tudor IS born future Queen consort of France..
  • 21ST-25TH SEPTEMBER James IV of Scotland invades Northumberland in support of the pretender Perkin Warbeck
  • OCTOBER Henry arranged the marriage between Catherine and William Courtenay. Catherine was Henry’s wife Elizabeth of York’s sister.
  • The Cornish Rebellion: The  primary cause was the response by the impoverished Cornish populace to the raising of war taxes by King Henry VII to raise money for a campaign against Scotland
1497
  • 17TH JUNE: The end of the Cornish rebellion
  • John Cabot sets sail for Asia commissioned by Henry
  • under the English flag, John Cabot left Bristol on his voyage of exploration across the Atlantic to find a route to Asia and to open new trade routes expecting to find the east coast of Asia Cabot and his fleet of explorers landed on what we now know as new foundland or nova scotia.
  • King James IV of Scotland, invades Norham castle in support of Perkin Warbeck.
  • Christopher Bainbridge is chaplain to Henry.
  • AUGUST Catherine of Aragon and Prince Arthur were formally betrothed at the ancient palace of Woodstock
  • The Treaty of Ayton, which had brought about peace following James' support for Perkin Warbeck, a pretender to Henry's throne
  • Second Cornish Uprising
  • 7TH SEPTEMBER Second Cornish Uprising Perkin Warbeck landed at Whitesand Bay, two miles north of Land's End, in Cornwall. Perkin deserted his troops when he heard heard that the King's scouts were at Glastonbury he panicked and deserted his army.
  • 10TH SEPTEMBER Perkin Warbeck was proclaimed as King in Bodmin.
  • 30TH SEPTEMBER Treaty of Ayton King James IV's commissioner, the Spaniard Pedro de Ayala concluded a lengthy truce with England
  • 4TH OCTOBER Leaders of the Second Cornish Uprising surrender to the Henry  at Taunton; the following day
  • 5TH OCTOBER Perkin Warbeck having deserted his army, is captured at Beaulieu Abbey in Hampshire
  • Henry's   son Edward is born
  • 23RD DECEMBER Sheen Palace is destroyed by fire. Henry  rebuilds it as Richmond Palace.
1499
  • Henry's son Edward died
  • 19TH MAY  The 13-year-old Catherine of Aragon, , is married by proxy to his brother, 12-year-old Arthur, Prince of Wales henry's son.
  • 23RD NOVEMBER The execution of Perkin Warbeck for treason, pretender to the throne.This is for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London.
  • 28TH NOVEMBER: The execution of Edward Plantagenet 17th earl Warwick, executed for treason. Edward was the last male member of the House of York.
1501
  • MARCH  The first royal court held at the new Richmond Palace.
  • 16TH JUNE Henry makes Thomas Howard Lord High Treasurer
  • 2ND OCTOBER Catherine of Aragon arrived in England
  • 14TH NOVEMBER: Henry's son Prince Arthur marries Catherine of Aragon at Saint Paul’s Cathedral. Thomas Savage Archbishop of York handled the marriage ceremony. The couple spent the first month of their marriage at Tickenhill Manor. Margaret Pole who was Elizabeth of York’s cousin, became one of Catherine of Aragon’s ladies-in-waiting.
  • DECEMBER Prince Arthur and his wife Catherine of Aragon are now in Ludlow. Henry Pole accompanied them to Ludlow Castle where Arthur took his role as President of the Council of Wales and the Marches.
1502
  • 24TH JANUARY Treaty Of Perpetual Peace: this was assigned by James IV of Scotland and Henry vii of England in 1502. it agreed to end the intermittent warfare between Scotland and England
  • 27TH MARCH Prince Arthur fell seriously ill
  • 2ND APRIL: Prince Arthur, Henry’s son and heir  died
  • OCTOBER Henry’s son Prince Henry now his heir  became the new Duke of Cornwall
1503
  • JANUARY 24TH The  construction for the new Henry VII Lady Chapel begins in Westminster Abbey
  • Henry’s daughter Margaret is married by Proxy to King James IV of Scotland at Richmond Palace. Patrick, Earl of Bothwell, was proxy for the Scottish King and wore a gown of cloth-of-gold at the ceremony in the Queen's great chamber. He was accompanied by the Archbishop of Glasgow and Andrew Forman, Postulate of Moray. The Herald, John Young, reported that "right notable jousts" followed the ceremony. Prizes were awarded the next morning and the tournament continued another day
  • 2ND FEBRUARY Henry’s daughter Catherine born but died days later
  • 11TH FEBRUARY: Henry's wife Elizabeth of York died. succumbed to a post-partum infection
  • FEBRUARY Henry’s son Prince Henry is now the new Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. Young Henry was strictly supervised and did not appear in public. As a result, the young Henry would later ascend the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship
  •   24TH FEBRUARY   The funeral of Elizabeth of York Lady Catherine Gordon who had been lady-in-waiting and the widow of Perkin Warbeck, was chief mourner.
  • 23RD JUNE : New treaty signed, in relation to the betrothed of future  Henry VIII England and Catherine of Aragon
  • 27TH JUNE: Henry and Margaret Tudor his daughter   traveled first to Collyweston
  • 8TH AUGUST Henry's  daughter Margaret married King James IV of Scotland at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh
1504
  • William Warham becomes Henry’s Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury
  • John Fisher was appointed the Bishop of Rochester at the personal insistence of Henry. John was personal chaplain to Henry's mother Margaret Beaufort.
1505
1506
  • 9th FEBRUARY Henry’s son Prince Henry is Knight of the Golden Fleece by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian
  • Philip I of Castile and his wife were guests of Henry after being shipwrecked. The princess Mary, Henry’s daughter Mary was called to entertain the guests, dancing, and playing the lute and clavichord.. Philip and his wife in fact ended up being more like hostages  for the duration of their stay in England. To get released Philip was forced to sign a treaty with Henry This enabled Henry to negotiate the Intercursus Malus intended to replace the Intercursus Magnus of1496
1507
  • 21ST FEBRUARY: Henry's grandson James, Duke of Rothesay is born son of daughter Margaret Tudor Queen Scots.
  • Thomas Wolsey became royal chaplain to Henry.
  •  Henry prosecutes lords for keeping private armies, which might threaten his régime
1508
  • 27TH FEBRUARY: Henry's grandson James Duke of Rothesay, through his daughter Margaret Queen of Scots died
  • APRIL Thomas Wolsey was sent to Scotland to discuss with King James IV rumours of the renewal of the Auld Alliance
  • Henry sent Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, was sent to the Tower of London, and later a gaol in Calais, under suspicion of conspiracy against him. Thomas Grey was Nephew to his late wife Elizabeth of York
1509
  • 21ST APRIL King  Henry VII England died at Richmond palace 
  • Thomas Howard  who became the 2nd duke of Norfolk, was executor of the will of Henry VIII
 
King Henry the VII of England was buried  on the 11th May 1509 in Westminster
Abbey, London
 
 
  • Henry Tudor was King of England, for twenty-four years

 

  • Henry won the crown after he defeated and killed, Richard III, of England at the Battle of Bosworth field.

 

  • Henry’s paternal grandparents were Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois, the late queen dowager of Henry V of England. Owen was from Welsh origins. Henrys Descendants, were of The Tudors of Penmynydd. A well-known noble Welsh family. Tudur ap Goronwy was knighted by King Edward III of England his name “Tudur”, was then passed down as a family name to further generations.

 

  • Henry claim to the throne of England, came from his mother’s bloodline; Margaret Beaufort. Henry’s mother, Was a decedent of John of Gaunt, the son of Edward III England.

 

  • Henry was 3rd cousin to Henry VI of England, His mother Margaret was second cousin, through her father, Margaret’s paternal grandfather John Beaufort, was a uncle to Henry V of England. John Beaufort had been son of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford.

 

  • Henry's father Edmund Tudor was captured while fighting for Henry VI in South Wales against the Yorkists. He died in Carmarthen Castle, three months before Henry was born in 1456.

 

  • Henry’s mother Margaret Beaufort, was only thirteen. when she gave birth to him, she had been in the wardship of the much older Edmund Tudor, prior to her marriage since the tender age of nine. Margaret had been married to John De La Pole, but after his father’s death, the marriage was annulled, so she could be remarried to Edmund. Edmund was a higher prospect. When Edmund died, Jasper Tudor, Edmund's brother, took Margaret and young Henry under his wing. Edmund the Earl of Richmond died in captivity in Carmarthen Castle, and never met his son Henry.

 

  • During Henry’s exile in France the communication between Henry and his mother was very little, and apart from very few visits, they had only had contact by letters.

 

  • Henry dated his reign starting from 21st August 1485, the day before the Battle of Bosworth. This allowed Henry to seize lands and properties for the crown from nobles who had fought alongside Richard III would be declared as traitors.

 

  • Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of late Edward IV England, Elizabeth was a niece of late Richard III England. Henry and Elizabeth’s marriage was classed as a union of the crowns.

 

  • Henry VII's as King of England grip on power was far from secure. His claim to the throne was shaky and he was plagued by plots and conspiracies throughout his reign. He quickly identified the main problem he faced – the powerful barons of England. They were rich and they had their own private armies. During the Wars of the Roses, they had not been loyal to either side – renting out their private armies to the family that paid the most. Henry had to control them.

 

HENRY HAD A THREE-WAY PLAN TO BRING THE BARONS UNDER HIS CONTROL.

 

First, he banned all private armies. Any baron who disobeyed this royal command would be committing treason which carried the death penalty.

 

Secondly, he heavily taxed the barons to reduce their wealth. The money raised could be used by Henry to develop his own royal army. A powerful royal army was an obvious threat to the barons.

 

The third way of controlling the barons was to use the Court of Star Chamber. This was a court run by men who were loyal to Henry VII and they could be relied on to severely punish any baron who angered the king. 

 

  • Lambert Simnel was an imposter to the throne of England. His claim to be the Earl of Warwick in 1487.

 

  • When Henry’s wife Elizabeth of York’s died, Henry became very ill, and only allowed his mother to tend to him.

 

  • After the death of his son and heir Prince Arthur, in 1502, Henry renewed his efforts to reseal an alliance between England and Wales, by offering his second son Henry as husband to Catherine of Aragon, Spain was very keen on this, however, there were issues on her dowry.

 

  • At age of 46, he was interested in taking a second wife and, the still young. Joanna was suggested as a potential bride by her aunt, Isabella I of Castile. But nothing came of it.

 

  • Bishop John Fisher was appointed to preach the funeral of Henry as king of England.

EXTRA FACTS ON HENRY VII OF ENGLAND

POLITICAL POSITIONS IN THE COURT OF HENRY VII  OF ENGLAND

TUDOR ANCESTORS OF HENRY VII OF ENGLAND

FICTIONAL PORTRAYALS OF HENRY VII OF ENGLAND

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