HISTORY OF HORROR

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The horror genre has ancient origins with roots in folklore and religious traditions,    focusing on death, the afterlife, evil, the demonic and the principle of the thing               embodied in the person. These were manifested in stories of beings such
                            as demons, witches, vampires, werewolves, and ghosts.

TIMELINE

1717 

24th September          The birth of Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford .Who's credited for writing                                     the first Gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto (Death 1797)

1764                         The Castle of Otranto novel by Horace Walpole is published. It is generally                                       regarded as the first gothic novel

 9th July                      The birth of Ann Radcliffe (Born Ann Ward ) an English author of Gothic                                         and pioneer fiction Gothic fiction.  (Death 1823)

1795 

7th September             The Birth of John William Polidori, who credited by some as the creator of

                                   the vampire genre of fantasy fiction. (Death 1821)

1802   

26th February              The birth of Victor Marie Hugo, a French poet, novelist. Hugo is                                                       considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers. 

                                   Outside France, his most famous works are the novels

                                   "The Hunchback of Notre-Dame" (Death 1885)

                                     

1807      

19th August                 The birth of Jane Wells Webb Loudon, an English author and early 

                                   pioneer of science fiction. She wrote before the term was invented, and

                                  was discussed for a century as a writer of Gothic fiction, fantasy or horror.                                                (Death 1858)                                                

1809     

19th January              The birth of Edgar Allan Poe, an American writer, editor, and literary critic.                                     He is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of                                            mystery and the macabre (Death 1849)

1797         

30th August                The birth of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. She was  the author of                                                        Frankenstein(Death 1851) 

                                     

1816                         "The Vampyre" was written by John William Polidori, often referred to as                                          the first story successfully to fuse the disparate elements of vampirism                                                into a coherent literary genre.

1818       

1st January                   "Frankenstein" or, The Modern Prometheus novel written by English

                                    author Mary Shelley was Published

1819                          The English word "zombie" is first recorded,  in a history of Brazil by the                                          poet Robert Southey

1827                         "The Mummy! Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century, which is a three-                                         volume novel written by Jane Webb is published. This was the first                                                   English- language story to feature a reanimated mummy

1850 

13th  November            The birth of Robert Louis Stevenson. The author of  "Strange Case of Dr.                                          Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" (Death 1894)

1886                         "Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde"  a gothic novella by Scottish                                              author Robert Louis Stevenson, first published

1818                         "Frankenstein" or other name known by  "The Modern Prometheus"

                                    is published. Written  Mary Shelley

1819                         The English word "Zombie" is first recorded  in a history of Brazil by the                                           poet Robert Southey

1831                        The Hunchback of Notre-Dame  a French Gothic novel by Victor Hugo,                                             published

1847   

8th November             The birth of Abraham "Bram" Stoker the  Irish author, best known today                                          for his Gothic novel Dracula. (Death 1912) 

1854     

16th October                The birth of  "Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde" (Oscar Wilde) who

                                   was an Irish poet and playwright. He is best remembered for his

                                   epigrams and plays,   and his  novel  "The Picture of Dorian Gray"

                                           (Death 1900)

                          

1859                         Oakley Court is a Victorian Gothic country house set in 35 acres

                                   (140,000 m2)  in the civil parish of Bray county of Berkshire was built for

                                   Sir Richard Hall Say. In August 1949 Oakley Court became home to the                                             famous British film production company Hammer Films. Also used in The                                          Rocky Horror  Picture Show (1975).

 

 

 

 

 

186        

1st August                   The birth of"Montague Rhodes James",he is best remembered for his                                                ghost stories, which some regard as among the best in the genre.(Death 1936)

1879

6th September​             The birth of "Friedrich Gustav Maximilian Schreck" known professionally                                        as "Max Schreck", was a German actor, best known for his lead role as                                             the vampire Count Orlok in the film Nosferatu (1922).(Death 1936)

1880

12th July                   The birth of   Tod Browning (born Charles Albert Browning,American film                                        actor, film director, screenwriter, and vaudeville performer.He directored                                           many well-known Horrors including  Dracula (1931),Freaks (1932)

1883             

1st April                    The birth of  Leonidas Frank "Lon" Chaney was an American stage and                                          film actor, make-up artist, director, and screenwriter. He is regarded as one                                       of the most versatile and powerful actors of early cinema, renowned for his                                        characterizations of tortured, often grotesque and afflicted characters,and                                          his groundbreaking artistry with makeup (Death 1930) 

1885                      
1st March               
The birth of "Lionel Alfred William Atwill"  an English-American stage                                            and  screen actor. He played in many Horror films including Son of                                                    Frankenstein (1939) (Death 1946)

1887 

23rd November            The birth of "William Henry Pratt", better known by his stage name                                                 Boris Karloff, an English actor who was primarily known for his roles in                                            horror films. He portrayed Frankenstein's monster in

                                   Frankenstein (Death 1969)

 

1889       

 5th May                     The birth of Jack Pierce (born Janus Piccoul) was a Hollywood make-up                                           artist best remembered for creating the iconic makeup worn by

                                   Boris Karloff in Frankenstein (1931), (Died 1968)

 

22nd July                    The Birth of "James Whale" an English film director, theater director, and                                         actor, who spent the greater part of his career in Hollywood. He is best                                               remembered for several horror films (Death 1957)

19th November         The birth of William Claude Rainsan, am  English film and stage actor whose                                   career spanned several decades. After his American film debut as Dr. Jack                                        Griffin in The Invisible Man (1933) and many other Horrors

1890                        "The Picture of Dorian Gray" a Gothic and philosophical novel by 

                                   Oscar Wilde is  published

 20th August                The birth of  Howard Phillips Lovecraft was an American writer of weird                                          fiction and horror fiction (Death 1937).

1892

13th June                    The birth of "Philip St. John Basil Rathbone", an English actor. many in                                           He played  roles horror films including "Tower of London" (1939), III,

an                               and Son of Frankenstein (1939) (Death 1967)

1896                          "Le Manoir du diable" or "The House of the Devil", was released in the

                                    United States as The Haunted Castle and in Britain as "The Devil's Castle"

                                    French short silent film directed by Georges Méliès.  it was technically

                                    to be considered the first horror film (and, because it includes a               

                                    transformation involving a human turning into a bat, it has even been

                                    called the  first vampire film)

                                 

1897         

26th May                     "Dracula"  A Gothic horror novel published is by Irish author Bram Stoker

October                       "The X-Rays" (also known as The X-Ray Fiend is an 1897 British short                                             silent comedy film, directed by George Albert Smith, featuring a                                                         courting couple exposed to X-rays. The trick film, according to Michael                                            Brooke of  BFI Screenonline, "contains one of the first British examples                                             of special  effects created by means of jump cuts"

1899   

22nd February             The birth of "Dwight Iliff Frye" an American character actor of screen. He is                                     stage and best known for his portrayals of neurotic, murderous

                                   villains in several classic Universal horror films (Death 1843)

13th August                 The Birth of   Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was an English film                                                           director and producer, widely regarded as one of the most influential and                                           widely studied filmmakers in the history of cinema (Death 1980)

 

1904

23rd February          The birth of  Terence Fisher  a British film director best known for

                               his work for Hammer Films. He was the first to bring gothic horror

                               alive in full color, and the sexual overtones and explicit horror in

                               his films(Death 1980)

26th June                The birth of "Peter Lorre" a Hungarian-born American character                                      actor of Jewish descent. Some of his last roles were in horror films                                       directed by Roger Corman(Death 1964)

 

1905                     "Esmeralda" a French short silent film, was released. This was based                                   on the novel  The Hunchback of Notre-Dame written by Victor Hugo.

                                The film is the oldest film adaptation of the novel

1906     

5th February

                              The Birth of "John Carradine" (born Richmond Reed Carradine) an                                   American  actor, best known for his roles in horror

                               films, Westerns, and  Shakespearean theatre. (Death 1988)

                                

 10th February        The birth of Creighton Tull Chaney, known by his stage name

                              "Lon Chaney Jr"an American actor known for playing many roles in

                              Horror Films. He was the son of the stage performer Lon Chaney

                               (Death 1973)

                             

1907

15th September         The birth of  Vina Fay Wray was an American actress most

                              noted for starring as Ann Darrow in  Horror films including the 1933                                   film King Kong. (Death 2004)

1908   

19th January            The birth of "George Langelaan". He is best known for his 1957

                               short story "The Fly", which was the basis for the 1958 and 1986

                               sci-fi/horror films and the 2008 opera of the same name. (Death 1972)

 

March                    "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" silent horror film is released. This is the

                               first screen adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's 1886 novel                                            Strange Case  of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

1910                     The first motion picture adaptation of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein".

                              This was a 14- minute short film

     

 

  

 

                     

1911       

11th March               "L'Inferno" an Italian silent film, loosely adapted from Infernoid is

                                released. This was the first canticle of Dante Alighieri's Divine                                           Comedy. L'Inferno took  over three years to make and was the first

                                full-length  Italian feature film

     

                           

 

27th May                 The birth of "Vincent Leonard Price"  an American actor                                                    best known for his performances in horror films (Death 1993)

1912    

30th  April               Universal Pictures is founded. It is the oldest surviving film in the                                        studio United States, the world's fifth oldest.

1913         

26th May                The birth of "Peter Wilton Cushing", an English actor best known for                                 his roles in  the Hammer Productions horror films (Death 1994)

22nd August            "The Student of Prague"  a German silent horror film. It is loosely                                     based  on "William Wilson", a short story by Edgar Allan Poe, the                                     poem  It is generally deemed to be the first independent film in

                               history 

22nd December        "The Werewolf" (1913) is released. This is a silent film short that is

                               considered the first werewolf film

​​

1914 

31st July                 The birth of "Mario Bava"  was an  Italian cinematographer, director                                 special effects artist, and screenwriter frequently referred to as the

                            "Master of Italian Horror" and the "Master of the Macabre"(Death 1980)

1916

                           Das Phantom der Oper was released. A silent film.The film,                                                also known as Das Gespenst im Opernhaus, is notable for being the

                               first film adaptation of The Phantom of the Opera by Gaston Leroux. 

23rd November       "Francis Michael Gough" an English character actor who made over                                   150 film and television appearances. He is known for his roles in the

                               Hammer horror films (Death 2011)

1917           

5th April                  The birth of "Robert Albert Bloch" an American fiction writer,                                           primarily of crime, horror, fantasy and science fiction, from                                                Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He   is best known as the writer of Psycho 

                                (Death 1994)

1919   

 5th October          The birth of "Donald Henry Pleasence", an English actor. His best-                                    known  film roles include psychiatrist Dr. Samuel Loomis in Halloween                               and multiple Horror Genres  (Death 1995)

1920

26th February          The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari  Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari)German                                      silent horror film, is released in. Some called it cinema's first cult film 

1922         

4th March               Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror  a German Expressionist horror                                      film, directed by F. W. Murnau, starring Max Schreck as the                                               vampire Count  Orlok The film shot in 1921 and released in 1922,                                        was an unauthorized adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897)

 27th May                The birth of  "Sir Christopher Frank Carandini Lee" an English

                               actor, singer, and author. With a career spanning nearly 70 years, Lee                                  was well  known for portraying villains and became best known for his

                                role as Count Dracula in a  sequence of Hammer Horror(Death 2015)

1924 

25th December        The birth of "Rodman Edward Serling"  an  American screenwriter,

                               playwright  television producer, famous work TwilightZone &

                               Night Gallery (Death  1975)

1926 

5th April                 The birth of "Roger William Corman" is an American director,

                               producer, and actor. He has been called "The Pope of Pop Cinema"

                               and is known as a trailblazer in the world of independent film

                                              Also known for  Corman-Poe films, &The Little Shop of Horrors

  

                                                                       

1927     

17th June               The birth of Lucio Fulci an Italian film director, screenwriter,                                             producer, and actor. He garnered an international cult following for                                     his giallo and horror films.(Death 1996) 

12th August            The birth of  "Daniel Mayer" Cherkoss known as Dan Curtis was an                                   American director and producer of television and film, known

                               among fans of horror films for his afternoon TV series Dark Shadows

                               and TV films such as Trilogy of Terror.(Death 2006)

1928       

7th January             The birth of "William Peter Blatty" best known for his 1971 novel

                              "The Exorcist" and for the Academy Award-winning screenplay of its                                  film adaptation(Death 2017)

1929

12th September       The Great Gabbo (1929) was released. This was probably the earliest                                  example  of a creepy doll in the movies 

1931   

12th February         The first "talking horror film Dracula is a 1931 American pre-Code 

                              vampire-horror film directed by Tod Browning and

                              starring Bela Lugosi as Count Dracula.

1932

4th April                 The birth of Anthony Perkins was an American actor and singer. Who

                             is best remembered for playing Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcock's                                     Psycho  (Death 1992)         

1933                     "King Kong" a giant movie monster was released in cinemas.                                             King Kong resembling an enormous ape, that has appeared                                                 in various mediasince 1933. Kong has been dubbed the Eighth

                               Wonder of the World, a phrase commonly used within the films.

1934       

November               Hammer Film Productions a British film production company based                                   in London. was founded by William Hinds& James Carreras

1935         

13th May                The first fere film to use an anthropomorphic werewolf was Werewolf

                               of London was released in cinemas.

13th November       The birth of "Tom Atkins" is an American character actor. He is                                          prmarily known for his work in the horror and thriller film genres

1937

29th December       The birth of  Barbara Steele a British film actress and producer. She is                                 best known for starring in Italian gothic horror films of the 1960s.

31st December        The birth of "Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins" a Welsh[actor, director, and

                              producer. Known to have played in many Horror Films including                                         Hannibal  Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs

1939       

2nd August             The birth of "Wesley Earl Craven"  an American film director, writer,                                producer, and actor. He was known for his pioneering work                                                 in the genre  of horror films, particularly slasher films (Death 2015)

1940

                              The birth of  David Seltzer   an American screenwriter, producer

                              and director, perhaps best known for writing the screenplays for 

                              The Omen (1976)                           

4th February          George Andrew Romero was an American filmmaker, writer and editor.

                              He is  best known for his series of gruesome and satirical horror films

                             about an imagined zombie apocalypse, beginning with                                                           Night of the Living dead(Death 2017)

6th October 

                                   The birth of  David John Pinner, born is a British actor and novelist.                                   His 1967 novel Ritual was a major inspiration for Anthony                                                   Shaffer's film The Wicker Man (1973)

 

1941       

4th October            The Birth of "Anne Rice", born Anne O'Brien, is an American author                                  of gothic fiction, Christian literature, and erotic literature. Author of                                  "Interview with the Vampire" in 1994, and "Queen of the Damned" in                                   2002.

1943                  

25th January           The birth of  Willard Tobe Hooper  an American director, screen

                              and producer best known for his work in the horror genre.

                              Among his most  recognized films are The Texas Chain Saw Massacre

                              (1974) (Death 2017)

         

2nd March             The birth "Peter Francis Straub" an American novelist and poet.                                        His horror  fiction has received numerous literary honors

15th June               "Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein" is released in the cinema.                                    This  as   the  first  commercially successful  comedy horror film

13th August           The first dedicated horror comic books appear, Gilberton Publications'                                Classic Comics 

1945           

9th  July                The birth of "Dean Ray Koontz" American author. His novels                                             are billed  suspense thrillers, but frequently incorporate elements ,                                       of horror, fantasyscience fiction, mystery, and satire.

1946

3rd November      The birth of  "Thomas Vincent Savinan American actor, stunt                                             performer film director, and prosthetic makeup artist. He is known                                      for his makeup and special effects work on many films directed by                                     George  A. Romero, including Martin, Dawn of the Dead, Day of the                                    Dead, Creepshow   

1947           

6th June                The birth of "Robert Barton Englund"  an American actor, voice actor,                               singer, and director, best known for playing the infamous serial killer 

                             Freddy Krueger in the Nightmare on Elm Street film series. 

1947 

21st September      The birth of "Stephen Edwin King" an American author of horror,                                     supernatural fiction, suspense, and fantasy novels. His books have

                              sold more than  350 million copies

 

1948     

16th January           The birth of "John Howard Carpenter" American filmmaker,                                              screenwriter, and composer. Although Carpenter has worked with,                                       various movie genres he  is associated most with horror, action,

                               and science fiction

4th September        The birth of "Michael John Berryman" is an American actor. Berryman

                             was born with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a rare condition

                              characterized by the absence of sweat glands, hair, and fingernails;

                              his unusual physical appearance has allowed Berryman

                              to make a career out of portraying characters in horror movies and 

                             B movies. 

14th December     The birth of Deanna "Dee" Wallace. She is also known for her starring                                roles in several horror films including The Hills Have Eyes (1977), 

                              The Howling (1981), Cujo (1983) and Critters (1986), which earned her

                              the  title of "scream queen"

1952     

                             The birth of  Stephen Volk (born 1954)is a Welsh screenwriter st                                          who specializes in the horror genre      

5th October            The birth of "Clive Barker" is an English writer, film director,and                                      visual artist. Barker came to prominence is of stories of the Book

                              Blood the mid-1980s wit a series of short blood,which established

                              him as a leading horror writer.

1954   

27th October          The first Kaiju film  Godzilla is released in cinemas.Kaiju(怪獣 kaijū,                                 from Japanese "strange beast") refers to a Japanese genre                                                  of films  which  feature giant monsters.

2nd December        The birth of "Anthony Tiran Todd"  is an American actor, voice artist,

                              and film producer. He has played a role in numerous horrors, 

                              Night of the Living Dead (1990), the titular character in the

                              Candyman horror trilogy (1992–1999), William Bludworth in the 

                              Final Destination franchise (2000–2011),

Hammer Film Productions