JOHN OF GAUNT

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON JOHN OF GAUNT, WAS THE FOUNDER OF LANCASTER. JOHN WAS THE SON OF A KING, EDWARD III. THE UNCLE OF A KING RICHARD II AND THE FATHER OF A KING HENRY IV OF ENGLAND.

TIME-LINE OF JOHN OF GAUNT

1340
  • 6TH MARCH John of Gaunt is born in Ghent, Flanders, the son of the fourth son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault
  • 24TH JUNE Battle of Sluys Part of The Hundred Years of war.
  • Edward successfully destroyed the French fleet which gave England control of the English Channel. Result English Victory
1341
  • 5TH JUNE Edmund of Langley, John’s younger brother is born.
1342
  • SEPTEMBER John is granted the title Earl of Richmond
1343
  • 12TH MAY John’s brother Edward , The Black Prince is created Prince of Wales.
1344
  • 10TH OCTOBER John’s younger sister Mary of Waltham is born at Waltham, Hampshire
1346
  • JULY John’s father, King Edward III invaded Normandy with a force of 15,000. He took Caen, the main city of Normandy and then marched onwards into France.
  • 20TH JULY Margaret of England is born John’s youngest sister
  • 26TH AUGUST Battle of Crecy Part of the Hundred Years Of War. John’s father Edward, and his brother, Edward the Black Prince, nicknamed after his black armour, scored a decisive victory over the French. Result English Victory
1347
  • John’s brother, Thomas, was born to Edward and Philippa of Hainault. He died before he was a year old.
  • 3RD AUGUST John’s father, Edward, fighting in France, took the French town of Calais
1348
  • 23RD APRIL Order of the GarterJohn’s father, King Edward III, and his brother Edward became a member of the newly founded Order of the Garter.
  • 24TH JUNE John’s brother, William, was born to Edward and Philippa at Windsor Castle. He died before September 1348.
  • JUNE The Black Death. The Black Death killed a third of the population
1350
  • 28TH AUGUST John accompanied his father King Edward III and his older brother Edward The Black Prince to Battle of Winchelsea. The battle is between England and Castile at Southern coast of England, off Winchelsea Result English victory
  • John was with his elder brother, Edward on a ship that was attacked by a Spanish ship.
1355
  • John’s brother Thomas, was born to Edward and Philippa at Woodstock Palace.
1359
  • 13TH MAY Margaret of England, John’s sister married John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
  • 19TH MAY John married Blanche of Lancaster at Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire. The whole royal family was present at the wedding, and the King gave Blanche expensive gifts of jewellery. Blanche of Lancaster was John’s third cousin.
  • John fathered a daughter, Blanche, by his mistress Marie de St Hilaire of Hainault, a lady in waiting to his mother.
1360
  • 31ST MARCH John’s daughter Philippa of Lancaster to his wife Blanche of Lancaster is born at Leicester Castle, Leicester, England.
  • Hertford Castle was granted to John. The castle became his chief country home when not abroad on campaigns.
1361
  • MARCH After the death of John’s father in law Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, John received half his lands, the title "Earl of Lancaster", and distinction as the greatest landowner in the north of England as heir of the Palatinate of Lancaster. He also became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland
  • APRIL John was created a Knight of the Garter.
  • 3RD JULY Mary of Waltham, John’s sister married John IV, Duke of Brittany
  • Margaret of England died, John’s youngest sister.
  • SEPTEMBER Mary of Waltham died
  • 10TH OCTOBER Edward The black prince, John brother married his cousin Joan, Countess of Kent
1362
  • APRIL John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when his wife, Blanche's sister Maud, Countess of Leicester died without issue
  • John’s son John of Lancaster, to his wife Blanche of Lancaster, is born but dies in early infancy by 1364.
  • NOVEMBER Lionel of Antwerp, John brother is created Duke of Clarence
  • 13TH NOVEMBER John is created Duke of Lancaster:
  • NOVEMBER john is created Earl of Leicester, Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Derby:
1363
  • 21ST FEBRUARY John’s daughter Elizabeth was born by his wife Blanche.
1364
  • 21ST FEBRUARY John’s daughter Elizabeth of Lancaster is born in Burford, Shropshire.
1365
  • John’s son Edward of Lancaster was born to his wife Blanche of Lancaster, Edward died in infancy that year.
  • 27TH JULY John’s sister Isabella, Countess of Bedford married Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy
1366
  • John’s son John was born by his wife Blanche but he died within a year.
  • John joined his eldest brother, Edward the Black Prince, in Aquitaine,
1367
  • 6TH JANUARY The Future Richard II England is born the son of Edward the Black Prince.
  • 3RD APRIL John’s son The future Henry IV is born from his wife Blanche of Lancaster at Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, Kingdom of England
  • The Battle of Nájera, Part of the Hundred Years of War, Location Nájera. Result Tactical victory for Peter I. John is present at this battle along with his brother Edward the Black Prince.
1368
  • John’s daughter Isabel was born by his wife Blanche of Lancaster but died the same year.
  • 12TH SEPTEMBER John’s wife Blanche died at Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire. John was oversea’s at this time.
  • 7TH OCTOBER Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence died, at Alba, Piedmont John’s older brother
1369
  • 15TH AUGUST John’s mother Queen Philippa of Hainault died at Windsor Castle.
  • John was sent to Calais with the Earl of Hereford and a small English army with which he raided into northern France
  • After Charles V of France renewed the war, John went to Calais and raided northern France.
  • Geoffrey Chaucer wrote an elegy on the death of John of Gaunt’s wife entitled ‘The Boke of the Duchesse’.
1370
  • SUMMER John at the head of a small force was sent to help his brother, Edward the Black Prince, and his younger brother Edmund of Langley, Earl of Cambridge fighting in Aquitaine. John was given the responsibility of a military campaign. Geoffrey Chaucer accompanies John to Aquitaine.
  • 19TH SEPTEMBER Siege of Limoges
  • John supported his brother, Edward the Black Prince in laying siege to and the retaking of the town of Limoges.
  • Geoffrey Chaucer writes The Book of the Duchess in memory of the first wife of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
  • 8TH OCTOBER John was created Lord of Bergerac and Roche-sur-Yon.
1371
  • 21ST SEPTEMBER John married Constance of Castile at Roquefort, near Bordeaux, Guienne. Thus giving him a claim to the Crown of Castile, which he would pursue.
  • William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and chancellor, asked for supplies for war. Parliament petitioned the king to stop the practice of ecclesiastics having positions of power and not being liable to account for their actions, and that non-clerical layman should be replaced by them. An important supporter of this action was John of Gaunt.
1372
  • 29TH JANUARY John claims the titles King of Galicia, King of Castile, King of León
  • 9TH FEBRUARY Constance of Castile made a ceremonial entry into London, accompanied by Edward, the Black Prince, and an escort of English and Castilian retainers and London dignitaries
  • John begins work on Kenilworth' castle. The northern part of the inner bailey was built by John. This was done by him between 1372 and 1380.
  • Geoffrey Chaucer's wife, Philippa, works in the household of John of Gaunt's wife.
  • John gathered around himself a small court of refugee Castilian knights and ladies and set up a Castilian chancery that prepared documents in his name according to the style of Peter of Castile,
  • 11TH JULY Edmund of Langley, John’s brother married Isabella of Castile, the sister of John’s second wife.
  • John began an affair with Katherine Swynford, widow of Hugh Swynford.
1373
  • 31ST MARCH John’s daughter, Catherine of Lancaster at Hertford Castle, Hertfordshire by his wife Constance of Castile
  • John Beaufort, John’s son through his mistress Katherine Swynford was born.
  • AUGUST John, at the head of an army of around 9,000 men left Calais for Aquitaine. The journey was long and arduous and many soldiers died of the plague and other diseases. Although they succeeded in weakening the French by raiding and plundering the land, by the time they reached Aquitaine the army was too weak to be of much use.
1374
  • John  forces reach Bordeaux
  • John returned to England.
1375
  • Henry Beaufort John’s son is born, at Château de Beaufort, Anjou, Kingdom of France the son by Katherine Swynford
1376
  • 7TH JUNE The dying Prince Edward summons his father Edward III and brother John of Gaunt and makes them swear to uphold the claim to the throne of his son Richard.
  • 8TH JUNE Edward the Black Prince, died at Westminster Palace, London, Now Edward’s son Richard is next in line to the English throne.
  • SEPTEMBER John summons religious reformer John Wycliffe to appear before the Royal Council to defend Gaunt from bishops who have become his enemies.
  • OCTOBER John, through the Royal Council, proceeds to undo the work of the Good Parliament
  • 25TH DECEMBER John presents his nephew, Prince Richard of Bordeaux, to the feudatories of the realm and swears to uphold Richard's right to succeed Edward III.
1377
  • 27TH JANUARY The Bad Parliament sat in England
  • FEBRUARY John Wycliffe was tried for heresy at the court of the bishop of London at St. Paul's. Wycliffe was supported by John of Gaunt but the trial failed to convict the religious reformer when it ended in riots and chaos
  • 20TH FEBRUARY There are riots in London after John attacks the privileges of the City.
  • 21ST JUNE Edward III of England is dead and now Richard John’s 10yearold nephew is king of England under John as regent.
  • Thomas Beaufort, John’s son is born at Château de Beaufort, Anjou by Katherine Swynford
  • 16TH JULY The coronation of the 10-year-old Richard II
1378
  • John's final campaign in France
1379
  • APRIL John’s sister Isabella, Countess of Bedford died
  • Joan Beaufort, John’s daughter at Château de Beaufort, Anjou by Katherine Swynford
1380
  • 24TH JUNE John’s daughter Elizabeth of Lancaster married John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke at Kenilworth Castle. She was seventeen years old and the groom was only eight
1381
  • 14TH JUNE Peasant’s Revolt. The people rebelled against the introduction of a poll tax. John was abroad at the time of the revolt.
  • The people rebelled against the introduction of a poll tax. John was abroad at the time of the revolt.
  • John’s Illegitimate daughter Blanche by Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut, married Sir Thomas Morieux
1384
  • 8TH MARCH  King Richard II recognises John as King of Castile, by right of his second marriage to the Infanta Constanza of Castile in 1371, and grants him control of all royal lands in Ireland
  • John  makes a temporary truce with France
  • APRIL At a session of Parliament held this year both John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock argued with Richard about the way in which the country was being run, his finances and the influences of his advisors.
1385
  • 6TH AUGUST Edmund of Langley, John’s brother is created Duke of York.
  • Thomas of Woodstock, John’s youngest brother is created Duke of Gloucester
  • Richard II and, John, undertake a fruitless military campaign in Scotland.
1386
  • 24TH JUNE John’s daughter Elizabeth of Lancaster married for a second time to John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter, after John had her first marriage annulled. John Holland was half-brother to King Richard II of England.
  • 9TH JULY John sailed from England to Spain, with a huge Anglo-Portuguese fleet carrying an army of about 5,000 men plus an extensive 'royal' household and his wife and daughters.
  • Following the death of King Pedro of Castile, John made an unsuccessful attempt to claim the throne as the right of his wife, Constanza of Castile.
1387
  • 14TH FEBRUARY John’s daughter Philippa of Lancaster married John I of Portugal, making her now Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarve.
1388
  • 17TH SEPTEMBER John’s daughter Catherine of Lancaster married Henry III of Castile, becoming Queen of Castile.
  • 8TH JULY John makes peace with Castile and gives up his claim to the Castilian throne by allowing his daughter Katherine of Lancaster to marry Prince Henry, the eldest son of John I of Castile.
1389
  • John returned to England and settled his differences with Richard II his nephew.
1390
  • JANUARY John is granted the title, Duke of Aquitaine by his nephew, Richard II of England.
  • John returned to England
  • MAY-SEPTEMBER John’s son John Beaufort was in military service in North Africa in the Barbary Crusade
1391
  • John’s daughter Joan Beaufort married at Beaufort-en-Vallée, Anjou.
1394
  • 24TH MARCH Constance of Castile, second wife of John died at Leicester Castle
  • John spend up to a year in Gascony
1396
  • 13TH JANUARY John married Katherine Swynford in Lincoln Cathedral.
1397
  • 9TH FEBRUARY John's children by Katherine Swynford are Pope Boniface IX and legitimated by Act of Parliament
  • 10TH FEBRUARY John Beaufort, John’s son was created Earl of Somerset, he was also appointed Admiral of the Irish fleet, as well as Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports
  • Henry Beaufort, John’s son is Dean of Wells
  • 8TH SEPTEMBER Thomas of Woodstock, John’s youngest brother died
1398
  • 14TH JULY John’s son, Henry Beaufort became Bishop of Lincoln.
  • 16TH SEPTEMBER John was in Coventry to watch a trial by the battle between his son, Henry and Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.
  • John’s oldest son and heir Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, the son of his first wife Blanche of Lancaster, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II. This was a resolution to a dispute between Henry and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk
1399
  • 3RD FEBRUARY John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster died at Leicester Castle, Leicestershire
 
John Of Gaunt Was Buried On The 31st March 1399 In St Paul's Cathedral, City Of London. besides his first wife, Blanche of Lancaster,

EXTRA FACTS ON JOHN OF GAUNT

  • John of Gaunt was the fourth son of King Edwrad III of England and also the founder of the house of Lancaster.He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent
  • John was the uncle to King Richard II of england..During the minority of King's reign, John had a strong influence
  • John was the father of the future King Henry IV of England and to Catherine Queen of Castile. He was a great-great grandfather to the future Henry VII of England and to King James II of Scotland through his son John Beaufort’s bloodline. John was also grandfather to the future King Edward of Portugal through his daughter Philippa of Lancaster,. John was the great-grandfather to Edward IV and Richard III, through his daughter Joan Beaufort.
  • John’s first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was also his third cousin; both were great-great-grandchildren of King Henry III.
  • John made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came courtesy of his second wife Constance, who was an heir to the Castillian Kingdom. At one point even titled himself with such.
  • The children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed "Beaufort. Katherine Swynford was the sister of Philippa de Roet. Philippa de Roet was married to the famous Poet Geoffrey Chaucer, the Author of Canterbury Tales. The name Beaufort refers to Montmorency-Beaufort France, département de l'Aube, Champagne, once the possession of John of Gaunt
  • John was sympathetic to the teachings of the reformer, John Wycliffe. Wycliffe was leader of an increasingly popular move against Bishops and Archbishops having power in government. He also believed that every man had the right to read the Bible in his own language and to interpret it according to his own convictions. Wycliffe’s followers were known as Lollards and they preached in the streets.
  • InTrowbridge, Wiltshire there is John of Gaunt school, named after him.
  • John of Gaunt in fiction, can be seen in the Hollow Crown, portrayed by the actor Patrick Stewart.

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