MARY 1ST OF ENGLAND

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON QUEEN MARY THE 1ST OF ENGLAND. ENGLAND'S FIRST QUEEN IN HER OWN RIGHTS.

EXTRA FACTS ON MARY THE 1ST OF ENGLAND

DATE                                  EVENT
1516
  • 18TH FEBRUARY Mary was the only surviving child of Henry VIII of England by his first wife Catherine of Aragon at the palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London.
  • 21ST FEBRUARY: Mary is christened, her God parents are Katherine of York, (sister of late Queen consort Elizabeth of York) Thomas Wolsey, Agnes Howard, for her confirmation, Lady Margaret Pole was her sponsor.
  • Lady Margaret Bryan is Marys governess
1517
  • 1 JULY Mary is sponsored to be Godmother to her cousin, Francis Brandon, the daughter of her father Henry VIII sister Mary Tudor.
1518
  • Mary was promised to Francis, the infant son of king Francis I of France,
1520
  • Margaret Pole is Marys governess
  • JULY: Mary at four years old, entertains a visiting French delegation with a performance on the virginals (a type of harpsichord)
1521
  • At the age of six, Mary was now contracted to marry her 22-year-old first cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
1523
  • Juan Luis Vives was tutor to Mary around about this time, plan of study for girls was an educational curriculum devised by him, the education of girls, was primarily for Mary. Allot of Marys education was influenced by her mother.
1525
  • Mary was sent to the border of wales to preside, presumably in name only, over the council of Wales and the Marches, she was given her own court based at Ludlow castle and many of the royal prerogatives normally reserved for the prince of wales. Here Mary met her friend and favorite lady in waiting Susan Clarencius
1526
1528
  • Mary returned home to London
1529
  • AUGUST Eustace Chapuys is now ambassador to England. Eustace Chapuys  is a support to Catherine of Aragon
1530
  • Lord Hussey, (Chief Butler To England) becomes Marys chamberlain
1531
  • Mary was often sick with irregular menstruation and depression
1532
  • Mary is not permitted to see her mother, who had been sent to live away from court, now that Henry  her father is involved over dispute with his divorce
1533
  • 25TH JANUARY: Henry VIII, Marys father married Anne Boleyn
  • 23rd MAY:Thomas Cranmer, is in sitting in judgment at a special court convened at Dunstable priory to rule on the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, declared the marriage of Henry  and Catherine null and void.
  • 28th MAY Thomas Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne to be valid.and Catherine Marys mother is formally stripped of her title as Queen, becoming instead "princess dowager" as the widow of Arthur. in her place,
  • Mary is declared a bastard, Margaret Pole, whom previously served in Mary household. refused to give Mary's gold plate and jewels back to Henry VIII and asked Henry her father to be able serve Mary at her own expense, but this   request was refused,
  • 1st JUNE: Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen consort of England
  • 7th SEPTEMBER The birth of her half-sister Elizabeth.
  • DECEMBER: Marys household is dismissed, she is now sent to join and serve in the household of her half Elizabeth at Hatfield, Hertfordshire. She was placed with Sir John Shelton and his wife, Lady Anne Sheldon. It has been claimed that "Mary was bullied unmercifully by the Sheltons, humiliated, and was constantly afraid that she would be imprisoned or executed." Instructions were given to Sheldon that if Mary used the banned title of "Princess", she was to have her ears boxed "as the cursed bastard that she was"
1534
  • MARCH: The First Succession Act
  • SEPTEMBER Mary is gravely ill, the King Henry VIII sends his personal physician to attend her.
  • 3RD NOVEMBER: The Acts Of Supremacy, which established king Henry VIII of England and subsequent monarchs as the supreme head of the church of England
1535
  • Reginald Pole is suggested by Eustace Chapuys as possible husband for Mary.
1536
  • 7th JANUARY Marys mother Catherine of Aragon died at Kimbolton Castle
  • Anne attempted to make peace with Mary is rebuffed.
  • 29TH JANUARY: Catherine of Aragon’s funeral, Mary is not allowed to attend. Catherine was interred in Peterborough Cathedral
  • 19th MAY: The execution Anne Boleyn
  • 30TH MAY: Henry VIII Marys fathers marries his third wife Jane Seymour at the palace of Whitehall, Whitehall, London, in the Queen's closet by Bishop Gardiner
  • JUNE Mary writes to her father accepting her illegitimate status, the annulment of her parents marriage, and her father's position as Supreme Head of the English Church
  • 23RD JULY: Henry VIII illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy died. possibly of tuberculosis at St. James Palace
  • OCTOBER The Pilgrimage of Grace
1537
  • 12TH JULY:The execution of Robert Aske for treason. Robert was an English lawyer, who became a leader of rebellion in Yorkshire. He led the Pilgrimage of Grace protest.
  • 12TH OCTOBER: The birth of Marys half-brother Edward
  • 15TH OCTOBER: PRINCE Edward was christened at the Chapel Royal of Hampton Court Palace, Edward’s two half-sisters, the 21-year-old Mary as Godmother and the 4-year-old lady Elizabeth is present, who carried the chrisom. The Garter King of Arms (Sir Christopher Barker) proclaimed him as Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester. his godfathers were Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and Archbishop Thomas Cranmer
  • 24TH OCTOBER: Queen Jane Seymour died of puerperal fever at Hampton Court Palace.
  • 12TH  NOVEMBER The funeral of Queen Jane Seymour. Jane was buried in St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. Mary was chief mourner for her funeral. A procession of twenty-nine mourners followed Mary, one for every year of Queen Jane's life. Jane was the only one of Henry's wives to receive a queen's funeral
1539
  • WINTER: Mary is courted by duke Philip of Bavaria
1540
1541
1542
  • 13th FEBRUARY The execution of her father’s fifth wife, Catherine Howard
  • MAY Mary is ill, with a fever and heart palpitations
  • DECEMBER: Mary invited back to court, at court, while her father was between marriages and without a consort, Mary acted as hostess during the festivities.
1543
  • FEBRUARY Catherine Parr, had established herself as part of Mary's household, and it was there that Catherine caught the attention of the King.
  • 12TH JULY: Henry Mary father marries Catherine Parr his sixth and final wife. at Hampton Court palace
  • JULY The Third Succession Act, returned both Mary and Elizabeth to the line of the succession behind their half-brother Edward.
  • DECEMBER Mary spent Christmas with her father and her two half siblings.
1547
  • 28th JANUARY Henry VIII England, and Mary’s half-brother Edward VI England is king.
  • 20TH FEBRUARY The coronation of Edward VI of England, Mary’s half brother. Edward was “Walking beneath a canopy of crimson silk and cloth of gold topped by silver bells, the boy-king wore a crimson satin robe trimmed with gold silk lace costing £118 16s. 8d. and a pair of ‘Sabatons’ of cloth of gold."
  • APRIL: Mary was very displeased when she learned of the marriage of Queen dowager: Catherine Parr and the marriage of Thomas Seymour, Thomas Seymour wrote to the lady Mary asking her to intervene on his behalf. Mary became furious at his forwardness and tasteless actions and refused to help. Mary even went as far as asking her half-sister, lady Elizabeth, not to interact with Queen Catherine any further
1549
  • JANUARY 29th: The Act of Uniformity House of Lords passes The Act of Uniformity which forbids the Catholic mass and introduces the Book of Common Prayer, Mary would defy this law for the duration of her brother's reign.
1550
  • DECEMBER Edward VI embarrassed his sister Mary at Christmas and reduced both her and himself to tears in front of the court. Edward publicly reproving her for ignoring his laws regarding worship
1551
  • MARCH Mary meets with her brother the king Edward VI ,in hopes of reconciling their religious differences
1552
  • APRIL Prince Edward, Mary’s brother fell ill with a disease that was diagnosed first as smallpox and later as measles
1553
  •   FEBRUARY: King Edward VI  falls more seriously ill, Mary  sees him for        the last time
  • APRIL John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland restored Mary's full title and arms as Princess of England.
  • 21ST JUNE  King Edward VI signs a statement disowning his sisters Mary and Elizabeth,in favour of Lady Jane Grey  to succeed him
  • 6th JULY Edward VI England died, and names Lady Jane Grey his successor
  • 9TH JULY Mary wrote from Kenninghall, Norfolk, to the privy council with orders for her proclamation as Edward's successor
  • 10th JULY Lady Jane Grey Queen of England for nine days
  • Bishop Nicolas Ridley of London preached a sermon in Lady Jane Greys favour at Paul's Cross, denouncing both Mary and Elizabeth as bastards, but Mary especially as a papist who would bring foreigners into the country.
  • 19th JULY The privy council declare Mary, Queen of England, Lady Jane Grey imprisoned with her husband in the tower of London.
  • 3RD AUGUST: Mary rode triumphantly into London, with the princess Elizabeth, at her side as well as a procession of over 800 nobles and gentlemen
  • 22nd AUGUST The execution of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland
  • AUGUST Richard Chancellor enters the White Sea and reaches Archangel, going on to the court of Ivan IV of Russia, opening up trade between England and Russia.
  • SEPTEMBER Leading protestant churchmen—including John Bradford, John rogers, John Hooper, Hugh Latimer, and Thomas Cranmer —were imprisoned. Protestant bishops in England are arrested and Roman Catholic bishops are restored.
  • 28TH  SEPTEMBER: when Mary left St James's palace for Whitehall, she was accompanied by her sister Elizabeth and Anne of Cleves The execution of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland
  • Stephen Gardiner is released from Prison along with Thomas Howard, the 3rd Duke of Norfolk.
  • Mary appoints Stephen Gardiner as her Lord Chancellor
  • Ralph Roister Doister, the first known comedy in the English language, is written by London schoolmaster Nicholas Udall for his pupils to perform. Gammer Gurton's Needle by "Mr. S.
  • A portrait of Philip of Spain , by Titian, was sent to Mary.
  • 1ST OCTOBER: coronation of Mary I England. Stephen Gardiner crowned Mary at Westminster Abbey. Anne of Cleves took part in Marys coronation procession. Anne of Cleves took part in the Coronation procession.
  • Susan Clarencieux became Mistress of the Robes to Mary.
  •  13TH NOVEMBER The trial of the Lady Jane Grey, Guildford Dudley  at Guildhall in the City of London
1554
  • JANUARY 25th -FEBRUARY: Wyatt’s rebellion, Susan Clarencius
  • 1ST FEBRUARY Mary addressed a meeting in the Guildhall where she proclaimed Wyatt a traitor
  • 9TH FEBRUARY The Wyatt's rebellion collapses and he surrenders in London
  • 12TH FEBRUARY The execution of the Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley
  • Edward Courtenay, is suggested as marriage match for Mary by her lady in waiting Susan Clarencius.
  • 23RD FEBRUARY: Henry grey executed
  • 18TH MARCH,:The  princess Elizabeth, imprisoned in the tower London, regards her alleged role in the Wyatt’s rebellion.
  • Antonis Mor paints Mary’s portrait
  • APRIL: the act for the marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain, under the terms of the marriage treaty, Philip was to enjoy his wife's titles and honours as king of England and Ireland for as long as their marriage should last
  • 11TH APRIL Thomas Wyatt is executed at Tower for being the leader in the Wyatt rebellion.
  • 22TH MAY Princess Elizabeth, was moved from the tower to Woodstock
  • 19TH JULY Philip II arrives in England
  • 23rd JULY Philip II and Mary first meet
  • 25TH JULY: Philip II and Mary are +married at Winchester cathedral
  • Mary taught Philip II to say "Good night my lords and ladies" in English but this was probably the limit of his proficiency in the language. He spent little time in England and was alleged to have several mistresses in Spain.
  • SEPTEMBER Mary has phantom pregnancy. Mary stopped menstruating. She gained weight, and felt nauseated in the mornings. For these reasons, almost the entirety of her court, including her doctors, believed her to be pregnant.
  • Foundation of Queen Mary's Grammar School, Walsall, and The Free Grammar School of King Philip and Queen Mary, Clitheroe.
  • 20TH NOVEMBER Reginald Pole return to England
  • 30TH NOVEMBER England formally rejoins the Roman Catholic Church.
1555
  • 17th APRIL The  princess Elizabeth,was released from house arrest, and called to court and remained till October,
  • 12TH JULY The first four Canterbury Martyrs are burned at the stake.
  • 16th OCTOBER Hugh Latimer, burned for teachings and his support of Lady Jane Grey,
1556
  • 16TH JANUARY: Mary is Queen consort of Spain after her father in-law abdicated.
  • 21ST JANUARY Eustace Chapuys died at Louvain, Duchy of Brabant, Holy Roman Empire
  • JANUARY Soldier Sir Henry Dudley, from France, plots to raise an invasion force which is planned to land on the Isle of Wight, march on London, remove Queen Mary to exile in Spain and place the Protestant Elizabeth on the throne. By July, the plot is discovered and abandoned.
  • 21ST MARCH: The burning of Thomas Cranmer for heresy. The third of the Oxford Martyrs
  • Period of rapid inflation; prices of many basic commodities double in 12 months
  • MARCH: Reginald Pole after his return from is archbishop of Canterbury,
  • 27TH JUNE Thirteen Protestant Stratford Martyrs are burned at the stake in London.
1557
  • MARCH -JULY: Philip II returns to England to persuade Mary to support Spain in a renewed war against France
  • Mary permits Anne of Cleves to live at Chelsea old manor, when she was ill.
  • 16th JULY Anne of Cleves died
  • Robert Recorde's The Whetstone of Witte is published, the first English book on algebra, containing the first recorded use of the equals sign and also the first use in English of plus and minus signs.
1558
  • 1st JANUARY-8th : Siege of Calais and England. French forces took Calais, England's sole remaining possession on the European mainland led by Thomas Wentworth, for the English
  • MAY: Mary was weak and ill, in pain, possibly from ovarian cysts or uterine cancer
  • MAY Benedictine monks allowed to return to Westminster Abbey
  • 6TH NOVEMBER Mary recognized her sister Elizabeth, as her heir.
  • 15TH NOVEMBER The last five Protestant martyrs of the English Reformation are burnt, at Canterbury.
  • 17TH NOVEMBER: of Mary I- England age forty-two, at St James’s palace, London
 
Mary 1st of England was buried in Westminster Abbey on the 14TH December 1558

EXTRA FACTS ON MARY I ENGLAND

  • Mary was Queen of England, for five years. And Queen consort of Spain, Sardinia and Sicily and
       Duchess of Burgundy for two years, during her marriage to Philip of Spain.
 
  • Mary was the Daughter of Henry VIII England and Catherine Of Aragon and granddaughter of the late Queen Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon.
 
  • Mary’s mother Catherine was of the bloodline of John of Gaunt, son of Edward III of England, Catherine of Lancaster, John of Gaunt daughter, was Catherine of Aragon great grandmother
 
  • When Mary was young, Henry VIII doted on his daughter and boasted to the Venetian ambassador Sebastian Giustiniani, "This girl never cries"
 
  • Francis Brandon was the mother of the lady Jane Grey, (nine-day Queen) and also had been a close Friend of Marys in childhood.
 
  • Mary determinedly refused to acknowledge that Anne was the Queen and that Elizabeth was a princess, which angered her father Henry VIII England to the point she could not see her mother. When her mother died, she was "inconsolable" and was forbidden to attend her mother s funeral.
 
  • It is said that the night before Anne Boleyn’s execution, Anne apologised formally for her mistreatment of Mary and asked to have that apology delivered to her. When Mary was in the household of the princess Elizabeth, it was said if Mary called her daughter a “bastard”, she quickly stepped in, instructing her aunt that if Mary continued to behave in this way she was to be starved back into the hall, and if she tried to use the Anne title of princess she was to have her ears boxed “as the cursed bastard
 
 
  • When Mary became Queen of England she had her parents’ marriage declared "good and valid”. And had several portraits commissioned of Catherine
 
  • Originally Eustace Chapuys came to England to support Catherine in her cause. However it was Mary to whom he rendered the greater service. Chapuys, who had been devoted to Catherine, strongly disapproved of the king's treatment of his daughter. He developed an affection for Mary, who trusted him and relied on him during some of the most difficult years of her life
 
  • Jane Seymour, who urged her husband Henry VIII to make peace with Mary and welcome her back to court. Jane brought up the issue of Mary's restoration both before and after she became queen. While Jane was unable to restore Mary to the line of succession, she was able to reconcile her with Henry
 
  • For most of her brother Edward's VI reign, Mary remained on her own estates and rarely attended court
 
  • Mary was the first woman to be crowned Queen of England and titled Queen, in own her right.
 
  • The Marian Exiles were English Protestants who fled to the continent during Mary and King Philip reign. They settled chiefly in Protestant countries such as the Netherlands, Switzerland and Germany, more than eight hundred Protestants fled to the continent during this period it’s believed.
 
  • From 1555, Mary as Queen of England, began permitting the burning of Anglicans for heresy. Two hundred and twenty men and sixty women were executed before her death in 1558, and thus nicknamed that been given to her “Bloody Mary”
 
  • Philip II, Spain. father Charles, was Marys first cousin, through her mother Catherine of Aragon.
 
  • Mary's will stated that she wished to be buried next to her mother, she was interred in Westminster Abbey on TH December, in a tomb she would eventually share with Elizabeth her half sister.

POLITICAL POSITIONS IN THE COURT  OF MARY I ENGLAND

FICTIONAL PORTRAYALS OF MARY IST ENGLAND

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