MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS

Who was the real woman behind Mary Queen of Scots? Why was Mary Queen of Scots executed in 1587?

TIMELINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS, MONARCH OF SCOTLAND

              TIMELINE OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS     
1542
  • 8TH DECEMBER: Mary is born the daughter of  James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise at Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow, Scotland
  • Mary was baptized at the nearby church of St Michael
  • 14TH  DECEMBER Marys father James V of Scotland is dead, and Mary is now Queen of Scotland at only a few weeks old.
1543
  • 1ST JULY The Treaty of Greenwich: he first sub-treaty helped to establish peace between the kingdom of England and the kingdom of Scotland. the second sub-treaty was a marriage proposal between Edward VI of England and Mary, Queen of Scots
  • 26TH JULY: Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox escorts the infant Mary Queen Scots to Stirling Castle.
  • 9TH SEPTEMBER: The Coronation of Mary the first of her name as Queen of Scots
1544
  • 16TH MARCH: The Battle Of Glasgow This was between Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox and the Scottish regent James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran,
  • 7TH MAY: The Burning Of Edinburgh The first major action of the war of the rough wooing.
  • MAY: English Earl Of Hertford (Later Duke of Somerset) raided Edinburgh, and the scots took Mary to Dunkeld for safety
1545
  • 27TH FEBRUARY The Battle Of Ancrum Moor This was between England and Scotland.
        Result Decisive Scottish Victory
1547
  • 28TH JANUARY  Henry VII of England is dead and his son  Edward VI  is king of England
  • 10TH SEPTEMBER The Battle Of Pinkie Cleugh This was between England and Scotland:
       Result Decisive English Victory
1548
  • Janet, Lady Fleming, Mary's father James V of Scotland, the former mistress is now her governess
  • The Sieges Of Haddington: This was  between France and Scotland against England
      Result Scottish Victory; Scotland Claimed Back Haddington
  • 7TH AUGUST: Mary is sent from Dumbarton to France and  arrived a week or later at Roscoff or Saint-Pol-De-Léon in Brittany
  • Dunbar castle was burnt by the Earl of Shrewsbury on a punitive raid during the rough wooing
1550
  • Mary's half-brother through her mother Mary of Guise: François III De Longueville, died
  • 24TH MARCH: Treaty Of Boulogne
  • 1ST  OCTOBER: Mary of Guise came to the French court to visit Mary.at Rouen.
1552
  • The Debatable Lands on the border of England and Scotland are divided between the two kingdoms by a commission, in an unsuccessful attempt to halt lawlessness there. This gives both Scotland and England their modern borders.
1553
1554
  • 12TH APRIL When Mary's mother, Mary of Guise became regent, the eleven-year-old Queen Mary sent her a congratulations Château De Meudon at Easter, from where she was staying with her grandmother and her uncle, the cardinal of Lorraine
1558
  • 12TH APRIL Mary and Francois are officially betrothed in the great hall of the Louvres Palace in Paris.
  • 24TH APRIL Mary and Francois are married in Notre Dame Cathedral.
  • 17TH NOVEMBER Mary 1st England is dead; Elizabeth Tudor is now Queen of England
1559
  • 2ND MAY John Knox returns from exile to Scotland, to become the leader of the beginning Scottish Reformation
  • 11TH JUNE Scottish Reformation: A Protestant mob, incited by the preaching of John Knox, sacks St Andrews Cathedral.
  • 10TH JULY: Henry II France is dead; Francois Mary husband is king of France and Mary is now Queen consort of France
  • 21ST SEPTEMBER: The coronation of Francois her husband the second of his name. crowned by Mary uncle Charles De Lorraine
1560
  • 27TH FEBRUARY: The Treaty Of Berwick: the purpose was to agree the terms under which an English fleet and army would come to Scotland to expel the French troops who were defending the regency of Mary of Guise.
  • MARCH: The Siege Of Leith. between Protestants Scots and English, and Catholic scots and France:
        Result Called Off Following The Treaty Of Edinburgh
  • 11TH JUNE: Mary's mother, Mary of Guise died, much speculation of the cause of her death.
  • 5TH JULY The Treaty of Edinburgh
  • 5TH DECEMBER: Mary's husband king Francois II France is dead, caused by a middle ear infection that led to an abscess in his brain.
1561
  • FEBRUARY: Mary briefly met her English-born first cousin Henry Stuart, lord Darnley, when she was in mourning for Francis, when he visits the French court
  • 25TH JULY:  After the Scottish proposals advanced by James Stuart, her half-brother, Mary leaves Paris for Calais accompanied by friends, three uncles, household servants and the four Marys.
  • 19TH AUGUST: Mary, is denied passage through England after returning from France, cannons were fired in Leith to announce Queen Mary's arrival in Scotland
  • 24TH AUGUST: Mary attended mass being celebrated in the royal chapel at Holyrood palace this prompted a protest in which one of her servants was jostled,
  • SEPTEMBER: Mary summons an audience with John Knox, accused him of inciting a rebellion against her mother and of writing a book against her own authority.
  • 13TH DECEMBER: Mary sent for Knox again after he gave a sermon denouncing certain celebrations
1562
  • AUGUST: Mary toured the northeast and was refused entry to Inverness castle on George Gordon orders.
  • 8-12TH SEPTEMBER:  The Siege Of Inverness castle when Mary, Queen of Scots visited Inverness on 9th September 1562 the gates of the castle were shut in her face by Alexander Gordon upon the orders of George Gordon, 4th earl of Huntly,
  • 28TH OCTOBER: The Battle of Corniche, fought between the forces of George Gordon, 4th earl of Huntly, chief of Clan Gordon against the forces of Mary, Queen of Scots under James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray,
        Result Victory For Queen Mary's Forces
  • 5TH NOVEMBER Battle of Corrichie in Scotland: The rebellion of George Gordon, Earl of Huntly is crushed by James Stewart, Earl of Moray.
1563
  • 24TH JUNE: Mary summoned Knox to Holyrood after hearing that he had been preaching against her proposed marriage to Don Carlos, the son of Philip II of Spain
  • Elizabeth 1st suggests Robert Dudley as a consort to the widowed Mary, Queen of Scots
1564
  • 21ST JULY Mary begins her northern progress, she visits Linlithgow again, then Perth, Blair castle, Inverness, Beauly priory, Dingwall, Gartly castle, Aberdeen and Dundee.
1565
  • 17TH FEBRUARY: Henry Stuart presents himself to Mary, at Wemyss castle in fife.
  • 24TH FEBRUARY: Henry Stuart return to Marys court at Holyrood
  • 22ND JULY: Henry Stuart is made Duke of Albany in Holyrood abbey and the Banns of marriage were called in the parish of Canongate.
  • 29TH JULY: Mary and Henry Stuart were married by roman catholic rites in Mary's private chapel at Holyrood
  • 26TH AUGUST The Chaseabout Raid Rebellion by James Stewart, 1st earl of moray against his half sister, Mary, Queen of Scots,  her marriage to Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
1566
  • 9TH MARCH: David Rizzio, is stabbed Marys private secretary 50 times. Henry Stuart  Lord Darnley is linked to this. murdered in the presence   of the Queen.
  • 12TH MARCH: Mary with the help of Bothwell and her equerry Arthur Erskine, Mary and Henry Stuart escape unnoticed out of Holyrood to Dunbar castle.
  • 18TH MARCH: Mary returns to Edinburgh
  • 19TH JUNE: Mary gives birth  to a son James, the future  James VI of Scotland  at Edinburgh castle, Scotland
  • Mary begins receives letters from Leonard Dacre
  • OCTOBER: while staying at Jedburgh in the Scottish borders, Mary made a journey on horseback of at least four hours each way to visit the earl of Bothwell at hermitage castle
  • NOVEMBER: Mary and leading nobles held a meeting to discuss the "problem of Darnley”. divorce was discussed at Craigmillar castle, near Edinburgh,
  • 17TH DECEMBER: The baptism of Marys son James
1567
  • JANUARY: Mary prompted her husband to return to Edinburgh
  • 9TH–10TH FEBRUARY: Mary visited her husband Henry Stuart, in the early evening and then attended the wedding celebrations of a member of her household, Bastian Pagez
  • 10TH FEBRUARY: Henry Stuart Marys husband is murdered.at kirk o' field in Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • MARCH Mary goes to mourn at Seton castle Henry Stuart father openly accuses lord Bothwell of his murder,
  • 20TH APRIL The Ainslie Tavern bond was a document signed by a number of Scottish bishops and nobles. the bond approved the Earl of Bothwell acquittal on 12th April of implication in the murder of lord Darnley, recommended him as an appropriate husband for Mary, Queen of scots
  • 21-23RD APRIL Mary visits her son James at Stirling castle for the last time.
  • 24TH APRIL: Mary is stopped on the road from Linlithgow palace to Edinburgh by lord Bothwell, and his men, were he says he is there to taken her to safety, however later she is said to of been his prisoner.
  • 7TH MAY Lord Bothwell gets an annulment from his wife Jean Gordon,
  • 15 MAY: Mary married Lord Bothwell. in the great hall at Holyrood
  • 15TH JUNE: A number of Scottish lords objected to the rule of Mary, Queen of Scots after she had married the Earl of bothwell,
  • The battle of Carberry hill between forces loyal to Mary, Queen of Scots, and those who oppose her.
       Result victory for opponents of Mary, Queen of Scots
  • 23RD JULY Mary miscarried twins
  • 24TH JULY Mary is forced to abdicate the throne of Scotland at Loch Leven castle, in favour of her infant son now James VI of Scotland.
1568
  • 2ND MAY: Mary escaped from Loch Leven with the aid of George Douglas
  • 13TH MAY The Battle Of Langside, Mary fought her brother who was defending the rights of her infant son
      Result in Decisive Regent Moray Victory
  • 18TH MAY Mary is taken into protective custody at Carlisle castle by local official
  • 28TH MAY: Sir Francis Knolly's interviewed Mary at Carlisle castle, and she was under his charge,
  • JULY: Mary is at Bolton castle
  • Mary wrote a letter from Workington hall to Queen Elizabeth I of England
1569
  • 26TH JANUARY: Mary was moved to Tutbury castle, from Bolton, placed in the custody of the earl of Shrewsbury George Talbot, and his formidable wife Bess of Hardwick
  • JUNE Mary is moved to Wingfield manor
  • SEPTEMBER Mary moved back to Tutbury, castle
  • NOVEMBER: the rising of the north, which was, an unsuccessful attempt by catholic nobles from northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
1570
  • MAY: Mary is moved to Chatsworth
1571
  • 23RD JANUARY: Mary half-brother through her father James Stewart, 1st earl of moray is, and regent to her son James VI of Scotland assassinated
  • The Ridolfi Plot: was a plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of scots planned by Roberto Ridolfi
  • OCTOBER: Sheffield castle
1573
  • Mary is at Buxton
1578
  • 14TH APRIL Mary’s husband, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell died at Dragsholm Castle, Denmark
1583
  • 22ND JANUARY: Antoinette De Bourbon Marys grandmother died
  • The Throckmorton Plot: was an attempt, by English Roman Catholics to murder Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with her second cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots. the plot is named after the key conspirator, Sir Francis Throckmorton
1585
  • JANUARY: Sir Amias Paulet, is Mary’s new gaoler. and returned to Tutbury
  • Mary is at Chartley
1586
  • 16TH JUNE Mary, recognizes Philip II of Spain as her heir.
  • 11TH AUGUST: Mary is arrested while out riding. and taken to Tixall.
  • 20TH–21ST SEPTEMBER– The Execution of the Babington Plotters: The 14 men convicted of a plot (uncovered on July 17) to murder Queen Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots, are hanged, drawn and quartered (the first seven being disemboweled before death) in St Giles Field, London.
  • OCTOBER Mary was put on trial under the act for the surety of the Queen's person in front of 36 commissioners. Mary was found guilty and the warrant for her execution was drafted,
  • 25TH  OCTOBER Mary is convicted and sentenced to death with only one commissioner, Lord Zoucha, expressing any form of dissent
1587
  • 1ST FEBRUARY: Queen  Elizabeth signed the death warrant of Mary Queen of Scots.
  • 7TH  FEBRUARY At Fotheringhay on the evening, Mary was told that she was to be executed the next morning. she spent the last hours of her life in prayer, distributing her belongings to her household, and writing her will and a letter to the king of France
  • 8TH FEBRUARY: The execution of Mary Queen of Scots at Fotheringhay castle, Northamptonshire, England
 
Mary Queen Of Scots was  first Buried On The 30th  July 1587 In
Peterborough Cathedral and later on the 28th October 1612, Westminster Abbey.

EXTRA FACTS ON MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS

  • Mary Stuart was Queen of Scotland, for 25 years.

 

  • Mary was Briefly Queen consort of France, through her marriage to Francis 2nd France.

 

  • Mary was a Great-granddaughter of Henry VII of England, through his daughter Margaret Tudor, the mother of James V of Scotland. Marys Father.

 

  • Mary was a Great niece of Henry VII

 

 

  • The war of the Rough Wooing, was a war between Scotland and England. Following its break with Rome. In Scotland, the war was called the "Eight" or "Nine Years' War. Henry VIII of England wished Queen Mary to marry his son, Prince Edward. This led to internal conflicts in Scotland between those who preferred the alliance with France and led to an English invasion

 

  • When Mary went to France in 1548, she took her four ladies in waiting with her, Mary Beaton, Mary Seton, Mary Fleming, and Mary Livingston.

 

  • Antoinette de Bourbon, Mary grandmother, through her mother, was a strong influence throughout her childhood.

 

  • Catherine Medici brought her up with her own children at the French court, while Mary of Guise governed Scotland as her daughter's regent. Elisabeth of Valois, Catherine Medici daughter became a close friend of Mary’s.

 

  • The Crown Matrimonial of Scotland was sought by King Francis II of France, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, by the Parliament of Scotland and Mary's mother, Mary of Guise, who was regent of Scotland. It would make Francis legal co-sovereign of Scotland with Queen Mary, and would also grant Francis the right to keep the Scottish throne if he outlived her.

 

  • Mary’s second Marriage was to her first cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, they shared the same grandmother Margaret Tudor, James V was the half-brother of Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, who was Henry Stewart's mother.

 

 

  • James VI of Scotland Mary and Henry's son would bring the union of the crowns, which was the union of England and Scotland as Great Britain.

 

  • Bastian Pagez was a French servant and musician at the court of Mary, Queen of Scots. He also designed some of the patterns for her embroidery, he also devised some of the entertainment for the baptism of Prince James, Mary's son.

 

 

  • Pierre de Boscosel de Chastelard, who was a French poet at the Mary's court in Scotland, was apparently besotted by Mary in early 1563, he was discovered during a security search hidden underneath her bed, apparently planning to surprise her when she was alone and declare his love, Mary banished him for this act, however it was rumoured that she had encouraged his advances.

 

  • Not long after Mary married Darnley, she became aware of his vain, arrogant and unreliable qualities, which threatened the well-being of the state. Henry was unpopular with many of the nobles and had a violent streak, aggravated by alcohol.

 

  •  Mary had a fool, Court jester called George Steven

 

  • The Casket letters were eight letters and some sonnets said to have been written by Mary, Queen of Scots, to the Earl of Bothwell, between January and April 1567is king

 

 

  • Mary when in a period of imprisonment in England under Elizabeth I England, was in the (charge) of the earl of Shrewsbury, George Talbot for fourteen years.

 

  • The Marian civil war was a period of conflict which followed the abdication of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her escape from Loch Leven Castle hose who ruled in the name of her infant son James VI fought against the supporters of the Queen, who was exiled in England.

 

 

  • The Oxburgh Hangings are needlework hangings that are held in Oxburgh Hall, made by Mary, Queen of Scots and Bess of Hardwick. Bess of Hardwick was the wife of Marys Jailor George Talbot. The work was done between 1570-1585.

 

  • At Mary’s execution, She was blindfolded by Jane Kennedy her maid, with a white veil embroidered in gold, knelt down on the cushion in front of the block, on which she positioned her head, and stretched out her arms. Her last words were,                                                                                              

"In manus tuas, Domine, commendo spiritum me ("Into thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit)

 

  • During the event of the Bablington Plot, In a successful attempt to entrap Mary Queen of Scots, Francis had deliberately arranged for Mary's letters to be smuggled out of Chartley sent in beer barrels. Mary was misled into thinking her letters were secure, while in reality they were deciphered and read by Francis. From these letters it was clear that Mary had sanctioned the attempted assassination of Elizabeth Gilbert Gifford was a double agent working for Francis at the time, who gained Mary's trust and at the same time passing letters over to be read by Francis these letters were used in the Mary Queen of Scot's trial in October 1586.

 

  • Mary was not beheaded with a single strike. The first blow missed her neck and struck the back of her head. The second blow severed the neck, except for a small bit of sinew, which the executioner cut through using the axe. Afterwards, he held her head aloft and declared, "God save the Queen." At that moment, the auburn tresses in his hand turned out to be a wig and the head fell to the ground, revealing that Mary had very short grey hair. A small dog owned by the Queen, a Skye terrier, is said to have been hiding among her skirts, unseen by the spectators

POLITICAL POSITIONS IN THE COURT OF

MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS

FICTIONAL PORTRAYALS OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS

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