OLIVER CROMWELL

.Who was Oliver Cromwell and what is he remembered for in History?

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON OLIVER CROMWELL. OLIVER WAS THE PRIMARY LEADER IN THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR, LATER TO BE MADE LORD PROTECTOR OF THE COMMONWEALTH.

TIME-LINE OF OLIVER CROMWELL

       
1599
  • 25TH APRIL: Oliver Cromwell is born in Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, land of England, the fifth son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward.
  • 29TH APRIL Oliver was baptised in St John's church, in Huntingdonshire.
1603
1604
  • Sir Henry Williams, alias Cromwell died (Oliver's grandfather)
1617
  • Oliver father Robert died
  • Oliver left at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
1620
  • 22ND AUGUST: Oliver married Elizabeth Bourchier at St Giles, Cripple-gate, London,
1621
  • 13TH OCTOBER: Oliver first son Robert is born.
1622
  • 5TH FEBRUARY: Oliver’s son Oliver is born
1624
  • Oliver’s daughter Bridget Cromwell is born
1625
  • 27TH MARCH James VI  Scotland/1st of England is dead, and his son Charles 1st is king of England and Scotland,
1626
  • Oliver sends a letter to Henry Downhall, an Arminian minister
  • 4TH OCTOBER: Oliver’s third son Richard is born
1628
  • 20TH JANUARY: Oliver’s son, Henry is born
  • Oliver was elected to Parliament from the Huntingdonshire county town of Huntingdon 1628–1629
  • Oliver suffers from what we would call depression, he goes and seeks help from Swiss doctor Henry Downhall, an Arminian minister
1629
  • MARCH King Charles 1st  England dissolves parliament and imprisons eight parliamentary leaders who are opposing his will.
  • 2ND JULY: Oliver’s second daughter Elizabeth is born
1630
  • Oliver went through a religious crisis and became a strict Puritan.
  • Oliver is called before the privy council, over a dispute among the gentry of Huntingdon
1631
  • Oliver sold allot of his properties sold in Huntingdon and moved to a farm in St Ives
1632
  • James, Oliver's son was born and died in infancy
1633
  • Charles 1st England raises the taxes called 'ship money' - pretending they are to fight pirates, but demands it inland as well as on the coast and takes people's goods if they have no money
1536
  • Oliver inherited control of various properties in Ely from his uncle on his mother's side, and his uncle's job as tithe collector for Ely Cathedral.
1637
  • 9TH FEBRUARY: Oliver's third daughter Mary is born
1638
  • Oliver’s fourth daughter Francis is born.
  • Oliver writes to his cousin about his spiritual awakening
1639
  • MAY: Oliver’s first born son Robert died, while away at school
1640
  • Oliver is member of parliament for Cambridge till 1653
  • Charles 1st England , summons parliament, but they refuse to grant him money for his war so he dissolves it again
  • Oliver moved his family from y from Ely to London
1641
  • MAY Oliver put forward the second reading of the Annual Parliaments Bill
  • 23RD OCTOBER Irish rebellion begins and lasts for seven months
1642
  • 22ND AUGUST: The First English Civil War Begins.
  • 23RD OCTOBER The Battle of Edgehill Part of the First English Civil War Location Edge Hill, Warwickshire Result Inconclusive Oliver had rode out for this battle, but was to late on his arrival
1643
  • 28TH JULY: Battle Of Gainsborough: Sir John Meldrum
  • Oliver Cromwell are commanders for the parliamentarians Charles Cavendish is commander for the royalist. Result Parliamentarian Victory,
  • The soldiers pocket bible is published, pamphlet version of the Christian bible that was later  carried by the soldiers of Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army
1644
  • The New Model Army is formed
  • Oliver’s son, Oliver died of, died of Typhoid fever while serving as a parliamentarian.
  • 2ND JULY : The Battle Of Marston Moor: Part of the First English Civil War Oliver is commander for the parliamentarians and Earl of Leven or the covenanter prince Rupert is commander for the royalist. Result Decisive Parliamentarian – Covenanter Victory Oliver fought at the head of his troops in the battle and was slightly wounded in the neck, stepping away briefly to receive treatment during the battle but returning to help force the victory. Oliver's nephew Valentine was killed at the battle.
  • JULY: Oliver rises to the rank of lieutenant general of horse in Manchester's army
  • Oliver writes to his letter to his brother-in-law. Valentine Walton Marston Moor
1645
  • 14TH JUNE: The Battle Of Naseby:Part of the First English Civil War Oliver and Sir Thomas Fairfax for the parliamentarians. prince Rupert and Charles 1st England for the royalist. Result Decisive Parliamentarian Victory
  • 3RD APRIL The Self-denying Ordinance was passed by the Long Parliament of England .Under its terms all members of the Long Parliament who were also officers in the Parliamentary army or navy were to resign either their Parliamentary seat or their military commission
  • APRIL The New Model Army finally took to the field, with Sir Thomas Fairfax in command and Cromwell as Lieutenant-General of cavalry and second-in-command
  • Oliver is Lieutenant-General of Cavalry (1645–1646)
  • 14TH OCTOBER Oliver took part in the final The siege of Basing House
1646
  • 5TH MAY: Charles 1st surrendered to the Scots .Officially ending of the first English civil war
  • Oliver’s daughter Bridget married her first husband Henry Ireton
  • JUNE The Siege of Oxford. Part of the First English Civil War. Oliver and Thomas Fairfax took the formal surrender of the Royalists at Oxford
1647
  • FEBRUARY: Oliver is ill, and his illness prevents him from being involved with politics for month
  • MAY Oliver was sent to the army's headquarters in Saffron Walden to negotiate with them, but failed to agree.
  • 7TH JUNE; Oliver meets Charles 1st of England for the first time. Charles appeared to be willing to compromise, so Cromwell employed his son-in-law, Henry Ireton, to draw up proposals for a constitutional settlement.
  • 28TH OCTOBER: The Putney debates began , which were a series of discussions between members of the new model army – a number of the participants being levellers – concerning the make-up of a new constitution for Britain. this lasted till 11th November
1648
  • FEBRUARY: The Second English Civil War. Begins
  • 17TH–19TH AUGUST: The Battle Of Preston:Part of the Second English Civil War. Oliver and John Lambert is commander for the parliamentarians, Marmaduke langdale is commander for the royalists. earl of callendar is commander for the engagers Result decisive parliamentarian victory
  • During 1648, Oliver’s Letters Suggest He Was Motivated More On Religious Reasons Than Political, Convinced God Had Spoken To Him, Against Kings was when new model army under the command of colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the long parliament all those who were not supporters of the grandees in the new model army and the independents
  • 15TH SEPTEMBER - 27TH NOVEMBER The Treaty of Newport Part of the Second English Civil War This was a as a failed treaty between Parliament and King Charles I of England, intended to bring an end to the hostilities of the English Civil War.
  • DECEMBER Pride Purge This was troops of the New Model Army under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the Grandees in the New Model Army and the Independents
1649
  • 4TH JANAURY The House of Commons passed an ordinance to set up a High Court of Justice, to try King Charles 1st for high treason in the name of the people of England
  • 20TH JANUARY: The Trial of Charles 1st of England begins 1st in Westminster hall. After this trial fifty-nine commissioners (judges) signed King Charles death warrant.
  • 26TH JANUARY: Charles 1st is condemned to death
  • 30TH JANUARY: On a bitterly cold day Charles i England was executed at Whitehall, London
  • The end to the  Second English Civil War
  • 6TH FEBRUARY The House Commons voted to abolish the House of Lords
  • 7TH FEBRUARY The monarchy is abolished
  • 14TH FEBRUARY The English Council of State, later also known as the Protector's Privy Council,
  • 17TH MARCH: The House of Commons, passed an act, abolishing the office of king by the new Rump parliament
  • 19TH MAY Act Declaring England a Commonwealth was passed.
  • The Third English Civil War
  • 15TH AUGUST: The cromwellian conquest of Ireland begins. Oliver invaded Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of England's Rump Parliament .Oliver lands in Dublin.
  • 3RD -11TH SEPTEMBER The Siege of Drogheda Part of the Eleven Years' War Location Drogheda located on the eastern coast of Ireland, 56 km (35 mi) north of Dublin Result Parliamentarians take the town and execute the garrison. Oliver is commander.
  • 2ND-11TH OCTOBER Siege of Wexford Part of the Irish Confederate Wars Location Wexford, south eastern Ireland Result English Parliamentarians take town and massacre the garrison Oliver is commander .
  • 11TH OCTOBER Oliver sends a final letter to David Sinnot.
  • DECEMBER First Siege of Waterford Part of the Irish Confederate Wars . Location Waterford, south-eastern Ireland . Result English Parliamentarians take Waterford after protracted siege Oliver Is Commander.
1650
  • APRIL- MAY The Siege of Clonmel Part of the Irish Confederate Wars Location Clonmel, County Tipperary Result Pyrrhic English victory
  • Oliver has the Academic Office of Chancellor of the University of Oxford 1650–1653
  • MAY: Oliver leaves Ireland
  • 3RD SEPTEMBER: The Battle Of Dunbar:Part of the The Third English Civil War.  Oliver is commander for the English parliamentarians, David Leslie is commander for the Scottish covenanters. Oliver smashed the main Scottish army killing 4,000 Scottish soldiers,Result Decisive English Parliamentarian Victory
  • Oliver is captain general and commander-in-chief of the forces 1650–1653
1651
  • 1ST JANUARY Charles II is crowned king of Scotland
  • Oliver is chancellor of the university of Oxford until 1653
  • 3RD SEPTEMBER: The Battle Of Worcester: Oliver is commander for the parliamentarians, Charles II is commander for the royalists. Result decisive parliamentarian victory Charles II barely escaped capture, and subsequently fled to exile in France and the Netherlands, where he would remain until 1660 Charles II hides from pursuing Parliamentarian troops in the Royal Oak tree at Boscobel House in Shropshire.
  • The end of  The Third English Civil War
  • 28TH OCTOBER Tender of Union: Parliament issues a declaration that England and Scotland should be incorporated into a single commonwealth.
1652
  • Oliver’s daughter Bridget married Charles Fleetwood, who was a friend of Oliver’s
  • APRIL The last Catholic-held town, Galway,in Ireland surrendered
  • MAY Oliver's Parliamentarian army had defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country—bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars
  • 12TH AUGUST The Act for the Settlement of Ireland was passed by the Rump Parliament of England
1653
  • Oliver demanded that the Rump establish a caretaker government of forty members. However Parliament returned to debating its own bill for a new government, this angered Oliver this response.
  • 20 APRIL: Oliver dismisses the rump parliament. supported by about forty musketeers,Oliver cleared the chamber and dissolved the Parliament by force.
  • 16TH DECEMBEROliver is now Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland there was a a ceremony in which he wore plain black clothing, rather than any monarchical regalia.[However, from this point on Cromwell signed his name 'Oliver P', the P being an abbreviation for Protector, which was similar to the style of monarchs who used an R to mean Rex or Regina
1654
  • Oliver’s mother Elizabeth died
  • 5TH APRIL The signing of the Treaty of Westminster ends the First Anglo-Dutch War, and the Dutch agree to observe the Navigation Acts
  • 12TH APRIL Oliver  creates a union between England and Scotland, with Scottish representation in the Parliament of England
  • AUGUST Oliver launches the 'Western Design', an expedition to the Caribbean to counter Spanish commercial interests, effectively beginning the Anglo-Spanish War (This would  last until after the Restoration in 1660). The fleet leaves Portsmouth in late December.
  • 3RD SEPTEMBER First Protectorate Parliament assembles.
1655
  • 22ND JANUARY Oliver dissolves the First Protectorate Parliament
  • 10TH JULY: Petervowell and John Gerard were found guilty of treason and hanged, for plotting to assassinate Oliver and replace him with Charles II England.
  • 4TH -18TH DECEMBER The Whitehall Conference is convened by Oliver debate the Resettlement of the Jews in England.
1656
  • Samuel Cooper paints a portrait of Oliver
  • 17TH SEPTEMBER The Second Protectorate Parliament assembles
1657
  • 8TH JANUARY  Miles Sindercombe and his group of disaffected Levellers are betrayed in their attempt to assassinate Oliver l by blowing up the Palace of Whitehall in London and arrested.
  • 23RD FEBRUARY Oliver is was offered the crown by Parliament as part of a revised constitutional settlement
  • 23RD MARCH: The Protectorate signed the Treaty of Paris with Louis XIV against Spain.
  • 13TH APRIL Oliver made a speech in parliament and made clear that God's providence had spoken against the office of King:
  • After three hundred and fifty years of being banished from England by Edward I , Oliver permits the Jews to return to England, and worship in private
  • 26TH JUNE Oliver was ceremonially re-installed as Lord Protector at Westminster Hall, sitting upon King Edward's Chair, which was moved specially from Westminster Abbey for the occasion.
  • 19TH NOVEMBER: Oliver’s daughter Mary married Thomas Belasyse, 1st Earl Fauconberg at Hampton Court
  • Oliver’s daughter Francis married Robert Rich
1658
  • 4TH FEBRUARY Oliver dissolves the Second Protectorate Parliament
  • Oliver was struck by a sudden bout of malarial fever, followed directly by illness symptomatic of a urinary or kidney complaint.
  • 3RD SEPTEMBER Oliver Cromwell is dead. it is thought the cause of Oliver’s death was septicaemia following his urinary infection
 
Oliver Cromwell was originally buried in Westminster Abbey On 30th January 1661 (the 12th anniversary of the execution of Charles I), Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to a posthumous execution, His disinterred body was hanged in chains at Tyburn, and then thrown into a pit. Cromwell's severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Hall until 1685.
 
 
 
EXTRA FACTS ON OLIVER CROMWELL
 
 
  • Oliver Cromwell, was an English political leader, and Later, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, Oliver helped overthrow English royalty, and temporally turned England into a republic.

 

  • Thomas Cromwell, the chief an advisor of Henry VIII of England was a great, great, great uncle of Oliver Cromwell

 

 

  • Oliver was educated at Huntingdon Grammar School and was one of the first pupils at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.

 

  • He was a part of the “Roundhead”. Roundhead was a name given to the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.

 

  • The new model army was formed in 1645, by the Parliamentarians. This lasted till 1660 after the Restoration. It was different to other types of army’s, as most armies focussed on a single area, the New model army was for the whole country, and also Ireland and Scotland. The soldiers in this army were professional than part time fighters. Oliver became second in command. Officers were chosen by merit, then social rank.

 

  • Oliver was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, and later Oliver would be later called the “A King Killer”, The death warrant for Charles 1st of England had fifty-nine signatures in total

 

  • Oliver as Lord Protector had two key objectives "Healing and Settling" after the civil wars.

 

  • Oliver, also went on to try to ban Christmas and other religious holidays, declaring them to be pagan festivals.

 

  • In 1651, Oliver’ after the success with battle Dunbar and Worcester, meant England had destroyed the Scottish army, and nobility and most of all its independence. After the battle, Worcester, Charles II who had been crowned king of Scots in January, was now on the run-in exile. Oliver had created the United Kingdom, but in England, however people in England still felt in limbo, as with Charles 1st gone, and the monarchy with him, it was the question who would replace that seat of office.

 

  • In 1653, Oliver decided only the army was suitable to control and govern, England. Oliver took an army in parliament and closed parliament down, he believed MP’s in Parliament was corrupt with their use of power. It seemed by this action he had replaced a king with himself.

 

  • Oliver grew to be despised by the English people, poor and rich, for four years he ruled liken to a King Oliver had started of a farmer, a landowner himself originally, then lived went on to live Hampton court palace, a kings palace. He appeared to be a king in all but in the name.

 

  • When Oliver died, the whole military that had been set up collapsed Oliver son Richard who was passed down his father's role in government was not successful. Richard, he lacked authority and his term in government only lasted two-hundred and sixty-four days. The monarchy returned with Charles II in May 1660.

 

  • When Oliver died he was given a was given a public funeral at Westminster Abbey equal to those of monarchy before him. After Charles II returned to monarchy, Charles' new parliament ordered the disinterment of Oliver Cromwell's body from Westminster Abbey and the disinterment of other regicides John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton, for a posthumous execution at Tyburn. After hanging "from morning till four in the afternoon", the bodies were cut down and the heads placed on a 20-foot (6.1 m) spike above Westminster Hall (the location of the trial of Charles I). In 1685 a storm broke the pole upon which Cromwell's head stood, throwing it to the ground

 

  • In West Minister Abbey, the spot that marks Oliver Cromwell’s grave is dated 1658-1661, this is because of In1661, and they had his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded, this is known as a posthumous execution.

 

  • In 1899 a statue of Oliver Cromwell was designed by Hamo Thornycroft and erected outside the House of Commons of the United Kingdom in Westminster, London

  • In Museum of London, a collection of his books, paintings and medals is on display

FICTIONAL PORTRAYALS OF OLIVER CROMWELL

Banner of Oliver Cromwell 

Portrait of Cromwell's wife Elizabeth Bourchier, painted by Robert Walker

Oliver Cromwell's death mask at Warwick Castle

1899 statue of Cromwell by Hamo Thornycroft outside the Palace of Westminster, London

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