The Plantagenet era refers to the time between the middle to the late Middle Ages. This era saw fourteen Plantagenet kings, which was five Edwards, five Henrys, three Richards and one John. If we count “Henry the Young” king, who had the title of king in Henry II lifetime, then we would have another. The Plantagenet dynasty was strong, and each king had their own mark on their reign.
The 12th century saw the second crusades, and by the 13th century, the Magna Carta was introduced. In the 14th Century, the Great Famine came, which started with bad weather and then the Black Death, was a pneumonic plague pandemic, which reached England in June 1348, and died down by December 1349.
The disputes over the French throne led to the Hundred years of war, and by the end of the Plantagenet era, we see the Wars of the Roses, as They battled who should be the rightful king of England, after Henry VI of England, proved he was not mentally capable to govern a kingdom. Some of the most violent parts of history has happened here in the Plantagenet Era
Arts and culture
The start of Renaissance began towards the end of this period. Renaissance was seen as a re-birth, people took an interest in ancient history, lifestyles of the average man began to change. Names like Geoffrey Chaucer and his works of Canterbury Tales and The House of Fame, The Legend of Good Women, were written in the latter part of this Era.
Significant buildings liken to Westminster that we see today, was constructed under King Henry III of England. These were just the start of what was yet to come over the following centuries that began the wheels in motion towards a more modern society. Music and Art grew to be popular. Western culture was on the path of the brink of change.
Toward the end of this period, we also have the invention of the Printing press. Invented in the Holy Roman Empire by the German Johannes Gutenberg around 1440 and by 1500 the printing presses were in operation throughout Western Europe and had already produced more than twenty million volumes.
The Tudor period began when Henry Tudor, won the Battle of Bosworth field and took the English throne from Richard III. King Richard was killed in the battle and Henry Tudor then became Henry VII of England. This period has seen the union of the Houses of York and the Houses of Lancaster. In Shakespeare’s plays, this is expressed as the “White and red rose”. Both houses were of Plantagenet blood. Henry VII married Elizabeth of York, who was the eldest daughter of Edward IV of England.
Politics and the Church
It was in this period that seen the beginning of the Reformation. The reformation brought dramatic changes in the church. Henry VIII wanted a divorce and would achieve this at any cost, including breaking away from the Catholic church. Henry VIII reign brought in the “Act of Supremacy” declaring himself as head of the church of England. By declaring himself as head of the church of England, meant he could no longer be controlled or dictated to by the Pope or the Catholic clergy. Henry VIII never stopped there, he followed by the Dissolution of the Monasteries and stripping them of their goods.
In this time we also have seen the Bible being translated into English. Then after, being eventually available to all to read, not just the clergy. This upset a lot of people, as many believed the Bible should not be able to be read by the common man. Once people learn to read the bible then this could question some of the practices of the church. To the church, this would cause a threat to their doctrines.
Between the years of,1533-1558, the country swung in merry go round from a religious perspective, it went toward partial protestant with Henry VIII to full protestant with Edward VI , then back to full Catholicism with Marythe 1st and then back to Full protestant with Elizabeth the 1st. Each monarch having restrictions on opposing faith of the time. Many judge Mary the 1st as the Queen who shed blood and burnt people for their beliefs. However, her half-sister Elizabeth was not far different herself. Granted Elizabeth the 1st became a more popular and much successful queen, which has reflected on opinions of her.
There were Anglo- Scottish wars with battles of Flodden, and the wars of Rough Wooing. Wars that would cost the country, also a great deal of money and create debt.
This era also was mid-Renaissance, were Holbein’s and Lucas Horenbout portrait painters and painters of miniaturists, come to our attention. There was also poets and writers such as Sir Thomas More, Thomas Wyatt. Thomas Tallis who was agreat composers of religious music of this period.
The Field of cloth and Gold was the notable event of the time. That seen King of France “Francis the 1st” and “Henry VIII” of England, hold an event in France aimed to strengthen their bond of friendship. In truth, however, came to no purpose other than to show off each of their splendour. This event was an example of the renaissance of the time. Each king trying to outdo the other.
This Era has seen six monarchs, with one disputed and later executed “The Lady Jane Grey”.
This period ended with the union of the Scottish and the English crown but also ties in with the Elizabethan period, which began in 1558 and ended 1603.
The Elizabethan Era, was also part of the Tudor period. It was also known as the Golden age, and part of the high Renaissance. The symbol of Britannia was first used in 1572. The Elizabethan age is named after the last Tudor monarch, Elizabeth the 1st of England.
This Era was known for its early modern theatre. William Shakespeare is introduced to us towards the end of this time, along with Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser and Ben Jonson. They were also to be known as the “The Queen’s Men” There was a passion for the use of Language and literature seem to flourish in this time. Plays began to be performed more professionally and more regular and all around the country than just by amateurs. From this came the building, of more permanent theatres. Most theatres in early days were built outside the city of London, due to religious policies, as unless it focused on religion, the play was seen as an evil activity.
In music, William Byrd, Thomas Morley, and John Dowland were all leading composer of this era.
Famous explorers, such as Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe between 1577 and 1581, and Martin Frobisher explored the Arctic. It was certainly an age of high renaissance by this point.
Education began to change in this time In general poorer children never had an education, Girls were educated to be homemakers, and boys to work. An average School day began at 7 am in the winter, and 6 am in the summer and the school day finished at 5 pm. Children from wealthier families were educated by a private tutor. Children from poor backgrounds could leave school early so they could work for their families.
Politics and Religion.
In 1570, Pope Pius the V declared Elizabeth the 1st of England a heretic and said her subjects did not owe her obedience. Catholics who lived under Elizabeth’s reign, were considered traitors, and were excluded from professions and sometimes fined or imprisoned because of their faith.
The Elizabethan age was a period of freedom if you were a Protestant, however, if you were a Catholic a period of living in fear.
.This refers to the period when James VI of Scotland, became James the 1st of England. This era is when The Stuarts came to power in England. The period ended when Charles1st inherited the throne after his father.
One of the most significant events that happened, was in November 1605, which is remembered as the "Gunpowder Plot". A group of men that included a Robert Catesby and a man named Guy Fawkes, had a failed attempt, to blow up the King and Parliament in the Palace of Westminster.
There were significant developments in the building of the foundations of the first British colonies on the North American continent, at Jamestown Virginia in 1607 and in Newfoundland in 1610. Then in Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620.
In the arts and theatre, William Shakespeare was at his peak, some of his best plays were written and performed in this period. Plays including King Lear (1605), Macbeth (1606) and The Tempest (1610). Other playwriters such as Ben Jonson is also remembered in this period, for his poetry and plays.
In architecture, Inigo Jones designed buildings such as the “Queen’s House” in Greenwich, The Banqueting House, in Whitehall and “The Queen's Chapel” in central London. While Sir Francis Bacon had a significant influence on science.
King James was in deep in debt in Scotland before he inherited the English throne. Then when he became king of England, he then went on to inherit the debt left from Queen Elizabeth The debt rose as time progressed. The Jacobean era ended with a severe economic depression between the years of 1620–1626, along with the outbreak of bubonic plague in London in 1625.
The Caroline period, Refers to the time of when Charles the 1st was sat on the throne of England. “Carolus” is the Latin meaning for Charles. In this period, was seen the uneasy tension between the Monarchy and the Puritans. Tension developed to the point that English civil war broke out. Leading to the result of the trial and execution of Charles the 1st of England.
Politics and the church
During the English civil war, there were those who supported Charles the 1st who was known as the “Cavaliers” and those who supported Parliament, who was known as the “Roundheads”.
Puritans wanted to dissolve the church of England of its Catholic practices. The founders of puritans stemmed back from those who were the exiled clergy under the reign of Mary the 1st of England. These Puritans returned to England when Elizabeth the 1st inherited the English throne. Some Puritans are known as "non-separating Puritans," they were not satisfied with the reformation in the church of England, however still remained within it. Other Puritans felt the church was that corrupt, they had to separate themselves away from it, they were known as "separating Puritans" or simply "Separatists. The Mayflower Pilgrims were referred to only as Separatists. The Mayflower was an English ship that famously transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, in England to the New World in 1620 during the Jacobean period.
Arts and Culture
In art, Anthony, van Dyck was appointed "painter to the king. In the theatre in this era, there was Philip Massinger, James Shirley, and John Ford, carried on creating interesting, even compelling works, there was a seen a fall after seemly reaching a peak. Cavalier poets (including Thomas Carew, Richard Lovelace did seem to flourish. Most of the Cavalier poets were courtiers, with notable exceptions.
Colonization of North America continued throughout Charles' reign, with the foundation of new colonies in Maryland (1634), Connecticut (1635), and Rhode Island (1636)
The Caroline period was controlled by religious and political conflicts, that grew darker as time progressed.
The Interregnum period began after the execution Of Charles the 1st of England. Then ended, when Charles the II was restored to the English throne. The Commonwealth was in control of Great Britain, and the monarchy had been completely dissolved.
Oliver Cromwell was the primary leader of this time. He resided with his family at Hampton Court Palace. Cromwell went under the title of “Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. “Oliver went from a working-class man to man who lived the lifestyle of a king. He made decisions for the country liken to a king, He was all a king but in the name. When he died that title passed to his son, Richard, just liken to the monarchy he had brought down.
In 1550, Charles II had been declared king of Scotland. England responded to this by invading the Scots. Resulting in the Charles II fleeing into exile until 1660. England, and Scotland, Ireland and Wales were run as a republic under the Common Wealth.
Under Oliver Cromwell, also came the resettlement of the Jews. Oliver Cromwell did not agree to all what the Jews wanted and for a while, allot was more basically tolerated than accepted by them. However, life did improve for the Jews, from this point, discrimination was still evidently there still, but Jews could not be persecuted if caught worshipping.
Art and Culture
Holidays such as Christmas and Easter were suppressed. Gambling became banned along with the theatre. However, Opera was accepted.
The Interregnum came to an end when Oliver Cromwell died, and his son Richard took over rules Lord Protector. Richard was not successful as his father. The monarchy was restored and this brought the end of the Interregnum period.
The restoration began, when Charles the II was restored to the monarchy in all three kingdoms, England, Ireland and Scotland. England had grown tired of the Common Wealth and Charles return from exile was welcomed Warmly by the public. The restoration ended with Queen Anneof England. This period seen Two monarchs ruled under the Stuart name, Charles II and James II. Then Two Queen’s rule through the right of blood, Anne and Mary, who were the daughter of James II. Mary would rule along with her husband William of Orange. Then Anne would rule after her sister, due to Mary having no heirs.
Politics and The Church
Charles II did embrace the Protestant religion. However, at heart, he was a Catholic. When Charles II died, the throne was then inherited by his brother James II. James was an open Catholic, and this caused issues. Eventually, James was forced to abdicate in favour for his daughter and William of Orange who would rule England jointly.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was when James II of England was overthrown and William of Orange and James’s Daughter Mary of England took the English throne. James had brought in the policy of religious tolerance, and because of Catholic beliefs and his ties with France, this caused tension in the government. When James II son was born, its created enough unease to want William of Orange to invade England and seize the throne, As a son would change the line of succession. William of Orange and Mary were cousins and also were in the line of succession, they were also Protestant. The English government did not want Catholicism to be in control. James was also becoming an unpopular king.
James did make one attempt to retrieve the English throne, however, was overthrown, and he returned to France after being defeated.
At the beginning of the restoration, Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, Judge Thomas Pride, and Judge John Bradshaw were posthumously attainted for high treason. The corpses of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw were exhumed and hanged in chains at Tyburn in the January of 1661. As much as this was felt at the time to be justice, that the bodies of Oliver Cromwell were to be dragged from their graves and hanged, it also must have been an unpleasant thing to witness.
One of the main significant events in the Restoration was the “Great Fire”. Which happened and began on the 2nd September 1666 and lasted until September 5th. Destroying allot of the medieval London. A Robert Hubert apparently confessed to being an agent of the pope and was hung on the 26th September that year. Robert Hubert had got the blame for starting the fire. However later, it had come to light there is no way he could have been to blame, as he was at sea at the time. He never arrived on England, till a few days after the fire had started. Allegations that the Catholics had started the fire were exploited, as powerful political propaganda by opponents of pro-Catholic at Charles the II’ court.
The restoration period, seen the end of the Stuart’s line on the throne of Great Britain. Then after the start of the Georgian era, which began with George the 1st of England. George was a great Grandson of James the 1st of England, through James’s daughter Elizabeth.
TUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSETUDOR ROSETUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSE