RICHARD III OF ENGLAND

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON RICHARD III  OF ENGLAND.RICHARD WAS THE LAST KING OF ENGLAND TO DIE AND LOSE HIS CROWN IN BATTLE

TIME-LINE OF RICHARD III ENGLAND

1452
  • 2ND OCTOBER Richard is born at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire. The son of Richard Plantagenet Duke of York and Cecily Neville.
1455
  • 22ND MAY Battle of First Battle Of St Albans, Richard father is commander for the Yorkist side. Henry VI commander for the Lancastrian side.
      Result: Decisive Yorkist Victory
1458
  • FEBRUARY Richard’s  sister Elizabeth of York married John De La Pole, 2nd duke of Suffolk, the grandson of Thomas Chaucer
1459
  • 12TH OCTOBER The Battle of Ludford Bridge, Richard’s father and his cousin Earl of Richard 16th earl Warwick are commanders. on the Yorkist side. Henry VI of England is commander for the Lancastrian side
   .    Result Lancastrian Victory
  • Richard and his older brother George (later Duke of Clarence), were placed in the custody of the Duchess of Buckingham, and the archbishop of Canterbury. when his father and the Neville’s were forced to flee to Ludlow.
1460
  • 10th JULY The Battle of Northampton, his brother Edward was a commander and his cousin Richard 16th earl Warwick. Henry VI of England is commander for the Lancastrian side
         Result Yorkist Victory
  • JULY: Richard and his siblings with his mother Cecily move to London & lived with the lawyer John Paston
  • 30TH DECEMBER: Richards father, Richard Plantagenet is dead. killed. Richards brother Edmund was also killed.
      Result Decisive Lancastrian Victory
1461
  • 2ND FEBRUARY The Battle of Mortimer's Cross, Richards brother Edward is a commander. for the Yorkists. And Owen and Jasper Tudor commanders for the Lancastrian side decisive
        Result Yorkist Victory
  •  17TH FEBRUARY The Second Battle of St Albans. Richards cousin Richard 16th earl Warwick is commander for the Yorkist side and Margaret of Anjou for the Lancastrian side.
       Result Lancastrian Victory
  • 4TH MARCH: Henry VI of England is deposed, Richards brother Edward IV as king of England.
  • 28th MARCH The Battle of Ferry-bridge, Richards cousin Richard 16th earl Warwick, is commander for the Yorkist side     
     Result Indecisive
  • Richard began and attended his knighthood training at Middleham at least till 1465
  • 29TH MARCH The Battle of Towton, Richard brother Edward, and his cousin Richard 16th earl of Warwick both commanders for the Yorkist side.
        Result Decisive Yorkist Victory
  • 28TH JUNE: The coronation Edward IV the fourth of his name. Richard is given the title Duke of Gloucester at the coronation. Edward was crowned by Thomas Bourchier Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • 1ST NOVEMBER: Richard is given the Duchy of Gloucester and invested a knight of the garter.
1462
  • Richard is made Lord High Admiral
  • 12TH AUGUST Richard was awarded large estates in Northern England, including the lordships of Richmond in Yorkshire, and Pembroke in Wales
  • 2ND OCTOBER Richard is made constable of Gloucester and Corfe castles and admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine
1464
  • 1ST MAY: The secret marriage between Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville
  • Richard is appointed the sole commissioner of array for the western counties
1465
1467
  • Richard's first solo expedition to the eastern counties
1468
  • 3RD JULY: Richards sister Margaret of York married Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy
1469
  • 12TH JULY: Richards brother George married Isabel Neville, the daughter of Richard 16th earl Warwick their cousin
  • 17TH OCTOBER Richard is made constable of England
1470
  • 12TH MARCH The Battle Of Losecoat Field. Richard brother is commander for the Yorkist side: 
       Result Yorkist Victory
  • APRIL Richard visited Pontefract
  • 10TH SEPTEMBER: Warden of the west march on the Scottish borders
  • 3RD  OCTOBER Edward IV England is deposed and Henry VI is back king of England
  • Richard and his brother Edward take refuge in Flanders, part of Burgundy.
1471
  • 11TH APRIL: Henry VI of England is deposed again, and Edward IV is king of England again.
  • 14TH APRIL The Battle of Barnet: Richard and his brother Edward are commanders at this battle, their cousin Richard 16th Earl of Warwick is commander on the Lancastrian side now.    
        Result Yorkist Victory Richard 16th Earl Warwick Is Killed
  •   4TH MAY The Battle of Tewkesbury Richard and his brother are commanders. Margaret of Anjou and her son Edward of Westminster, are commanders for the Lancastrian Result; Decisive Yorkist Victory Edward of Westminster killed at this battle, and  Margaret is taken, prisoner.
  • 4TH MAY the Battle of Tewkesbury Richard and his brother are commanders. Margaret of Anjou and her son Edward of Westminster, are commanders for the Lancastrian side.
  • 18TH MAY: Richard was named great chamberlain and lord high admiral of England.
  • 21ST MAY Henry VI of England has died in the Tower of London
  • Richard is made lord high constable& warden of the west march on the Scottish borders again.
1472
  • 12TH JULY: Richard married Anne Neville.
  • Richards sister Anne of York divorces her husband Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter
1473
  • JUNE Richard persuaded his mother-in-law lady Anne de Beauchamp, to leave sanctuary and come to live under his protection at Middleham,
  • OCTOBER Richard visited Pontefract
  • DECEMBER: Edward of Middleham Richard son is born at Middleham, Wensleydale
1474
  • MARCH Richard visited Pontefract
  • Sister Anne of York married for a second time to Thomas St. Leger
1476
  • 14TH JANUARY Richards sister Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter died.
  • 22ND DECEMBER: Isabel Neville died, his brother Georges wife
1478
  • 15TH JANUARY Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, Richard’s nephew  aged four, is married to five-year-old Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk
  • 15TH FEBRUARY: Richards son Edward of Middleham, was given the title Earl of Salisbury
  • 18TH FEBRUARY: Richards brother George, is executed for treason, and soon after the event, the rumour was that he had been drowned in a butt of malmsey wine
1480
  • 12TH MAY Richard is appointed lieutenant-general of the north
  • NOVEMBER King Edward IV  and council formally declared war on Scotland
1482
  • JULY-AUGUST Capture Of Berwick, Anglo-Scottish Wars: Richard, invades Scotland and captures Edinburgh
1483
1484
  • JANUARY: Richard strips Elizabeth Woodville. of all the lands given to her during Edward IV Reign
  • 1ST MARCH After Richard publicly swore an oath that Elizabeth, daughters would not be harmed or molested and that they would not be imprisoned in the Tower of London or in any other prison, Elizabeth Woodville came out of sanctuary the family returned to court, apparently reconciled to Richard.
  • 9TH APRIL: Richards son Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales died at Sheriff Hutton
  • Richard founded the college of arms
  • Nicolas Von Poppelau, spent ten days in Richard's household who was a  German traveller.
  • 21ST SEPTEMBER Treaty of Nottingham: A three-year truce between the kingdoms of England and Scotland is signed
1485
  • 16TH MARCH: Anne Neville  Richards wife died
  • 30TH MARCH Richard sent Elizabeth of York away from court to Sheriff Hutton
  • AUGUST 5TH -7TH The first outbreak of sweating sickness in England begins.
  • 7TH AUGUST Henry Tudor landed in at Milford Haven
  •  22ND AUGUST   Richard III of England is dead. killed at the Battle of Bosworth 
     Result Tudor Victory
Richard III of England was buried in Leicester Cathedral                  (re-interred, on  26 March 2015)

EXTRA FACTS ON RICHARD III OF ENGLAND

  • Richard Plantagenet was King of England, for two years.

 
  • Richard was a decedent of Edward III of England, from both of his parents bloodline. His father Richard Duke of York, was great- great grandson of Edward III of England, from the line Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. His mother Cecily was a granddaughter of, John of Gaunt through his daughter Joan beau fort.
 
  • Richard  had been a brother to a king, Edward IVHNF3e was an uncle to a king Edward V. He had been a distant cousin to a king, Henry VI
 
 
  • Richard Cousin to Lord Warwick nicknamed the “King Maker” whose daughter he married Anne Neville.
 
  • Richard and George were two brothers, married to two sisters. Anne and Isabel. And also, first cousins once removed to the two sisters.
 
  • Anne Neville and her sister, Isabel, the Duchess of Clarence, were heiresses to their parents' vast estates. George his brother, was, anxious to secure the entire inheritance for himself., and treated Anne as his ward and opposed her getting married, which would strengthen her position to claim her share. There was the story that the Duke of George, hid her in a London cook shop, disguised as a servant so that his brother would not know where she was. Richard is said to have tracked her down and escorted her to the sanctuary at the Church of St Martin le Grand. In order to win the final consent of his brother George to the marriage, Richard of Gloucester renounced most of Warwick’s land and property, including the earldoms of Warwick
 
  • In 1484 by an Act of Parliament known as Titulus Regius. The act stated that Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville's marriage was invalid because of Edward's pre-contract of marriage with Lady Eleanor Butler
 
  • Richard was the primary suspect in the mystery of the missing princes in the tower, however, no definite proof till this day fully supports this.
 
  • After his wife Anne Neville’s death, rumours circulated that Richard III had poisoned her to marry his niece Elizabeth of York.
 
  • Richard had two acknowledged illegitimate children, Katherine and John, neither of their mothers or birth dates are known, Katherine married William Herbert, and John was knighted.
 
  • The University of Leicester identified the skeleton found in the excavation as that of Richard III. As a result of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his appearance, and comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with that of two matrilineal descendants of Richard III's eldest sister, Anne of York. Richard's remains were reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015.
 
  • Richard was the last king of England to die and lose his crown in battle. Shakespear portrays him as a hunchback, however, there is no evidence of this, And could be regarded as Tudor propaganda.
 
 

POLITICAL POSITIONS IN THE COURT OF RICHARD THE III OF ENGLAND

FICTIONAL PORTRAYALS OF RICHARD III OF ENGLAND

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