RICHARD I OF ENGLAND

Who was Richard the Lionheart? what role did he play in English History? Who was his father?

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON KING RICHARD THE 1ST OF ENGLAND, NICKNAMED THE LION-HEART. RICHARD WAS THE SON OF HENRY THE II OF ENGLAND AND BROTHER TO THE FUTURE KING JOHN 1ST OF ENGLAND.

TIME-LINE OF RICHARD 1ST OF ENGLAND

 

1157

  • 8TH SEPTEMBER: Richard is born at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England, the son of Henry II of England, and Eleanor of Aquitaine

  • Hodierna of St Albans is Richards wet nurse

1158

  • 23RD SEPTEMBER: Richard’s brother Geoffrey is born

1160

  • 2ND NOVEMBER: Richard’s brother, Henry the young king was married to Margaret, daughter of Louis VII of France.

1161

  • 13TH OCTOBER: Richard’s sister, Eleanor of England was born.

1165

  • MAY: Richard’s mother, Eleanor of Aquitainetakes him to visits to Normandy.

  • OCTOBER: Richard’s sister Joan of England is born. Joan was Richard's favorite sister

1166

  • 24TH DECEMBER: Richard’s younger brother John  is born(Future King John of England

1167

  • 10TH SEPTEMBER: Richards grandmother, his father Henry II mother Empress Matilda, died

1168

  • 1ST FEBRUARY: Richard’s sister, Matilde of England married Henry the Lion

1169

  • JANUARY: Richard is contracted to Alys of France the French Alys, was sent over to England as a ward for Henry II of England

1170

  • Richard’s father, Henry II, falls ill and make preparation for his sons inheritance, dividing his kingdom. all thought he would retain the overall authority

  • 14TH JUNE: Richard brother “Henry the young kings” coronation. Henry was crowned by Roger de Pont L'Evêque, Archbishop of York

  • 29TH DECEMBER: The murder of Thomas Becket.

1171

  • Richard’s and his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine embarked on a tour of Aquitaine, , Richards mother had requested Aquitaine is given to Richard

1172

  • Richard is formally recognized as the Duke of Aquitaine

  • 27TH AUGUST Richard'sd brother Henry married Margaret of France, and was crowned once again by this time Rotrou, Archbishop of Rouen.

1173

  • The Revolt Of 1173–74: was a rebellion of Richard and his two brothers Henry the young king and Geoffrey, with their mother Eleanor , against their father, Henry II England.

1174

  • Richard sister, Eleanor of England married Alfonso VIII, King of Castile, and became Queen consort of Castile

  • 8TH SEPTEMBER: Richard’s father, Henry II England, made a truce with Louis VII France, but the terms specifically excluded Richard.

  • 23RD SEPTEMBER: Richard went to Henry  II' court at Poitier's

1175

  • JANUARY Richard is sent to Aquitaine to punish the barons who had fought for him

  • Siege Of Castillon-Sur-Agen;( Richard had a successful result after a two month siege of the castle) it was on this campaign Richard acquired the name "The Lion" or "The Lionheart" due to his noble, brave and fierce leadership

1176

  • Richards half-brother: William Longespée, is born

1177

  • 13TH FEBRUARY: Richard’s sister Joan of England married William II of Sicily

1183

  • Family conflicts arose over Aquitaine.

  • 11TH JUNE: Richard’s brother, Henry the young king died from dysentery

1186

  • Richard is given the title Count of Maine

  • 19TH AUGUST: Richard brother Geoffrey died at the age of twenty-seven, in Paris

1187

  • Richard allied himself with Philip II France, Richard asked for his help against his own father Henry II England exchange for his help. Richard promised to concede to him his rights to both Normandy and Anjou

1189

  • 21ST JANUARY Philip II of France and Henry II of England begin assembling troops, to wage the Third Crusade.

  • Richard is given the title count of Anjou

  • 28TH JUNE Richard’s sister, Matilda of England died

  •  4TH JULY Henry II of England ends a war against Philip II of France & Richard, by agreeing to their terms: he pays Philip 20,000 marks and recognizes Richard as the heir to the English throne..

  • 6TH JULY Henry II of England is now dead  and Richard is now king of England

  • Geoffrey Archbishop of York 

  • Richard is officially Duke of Normandy

  • 3RD SEPTEMBER: Richard’s coronation as Richard king of England, the first of his name in Westminster Abbey, Richard was crowned by Baldwin of Exeter, Archbishop of Canterbury.

1190

  • FEBRUARY Anti-Jewish riots break out in England.

  • 16TH MARCH A massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England, led by Richard Malebys, result in the deaths of 150–500 Jews in Clifford's Tower

  • SUMMER: Richard sets sail and joins The Third Crusade, as a commander

  • 4TH JULY Richard and Philip II of France, having met at Vézelay, set out from Marseille to join the Third Crusade.

  • SEPTEMBER Richard and Philip arrived in Sicily

  • 4TH OCTOBER: Richard captured the city of Messina, and released his sister Joan of England whom was prisoner there. Richard threatens war against Tancred of Sicily, and captures Messina.

1191

  • 10TH APRIL: Richard left Messina for acre

  • 8TH JUNE: Richard arrived with an English fleet of 100 ships (which carried 8,000 men) at the siege of Acre

  • 12TH MAY: Richard married, Berengaria of Navarre in Limassol at the chapel of St. George, and takes his wife on The Third Crusade with him, which was unusual for that age.

  • 8TH JUNE: Richard arrived at Acre

  • 20TH AUGUST The Massacre Of Ayyadieh Richard had 2,700 of the Muslim prisoners decapitated in full view of Saladin’s army, which tried unsuccessfully to rescue them

  • 7TH SEPTEMBER Battle of Arsuf in Palestine: Richard defeats Saladin, during the Third Crusade. (Result Decisive Crusader Victory)

1192

  • 8TH AUGUST The Battle Of Jaffa Between the army of sultan and the crusaders, led by Richard.   (Result Crusader Victory)

  • 2ND SEPTEMBER The Treaty Of Jaffa, was an agreement during the crusade that was signed by Richard and Muslim ruler Saladin the treaty guaranteed safe passage of Christians and Muslims through Palestine whilst also stating that the Christians would hold the coast from Tyre to Jaffa.

  • 9TH OCTOBER: The Third Crusade ends. Richard and Saladin negotiate visiting rights for pilgrims to come to the Holy City of Jerusalem. Richard leaves the Holy Land later this month. Richard, is ill with scurvy, and sets sail heading back to England

  • 11TH DECEMBER Returning from the Third Crusade, Richard is taken prisoner by Leopold V, Duke of Austria, and secured at Dürnstein.

1193

  • 14TH FEBRUARY Richard, previously imprisoned on his return from the Third Crusade by his personal enemy Leopold V, Duke of Austria is handed over to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, and moved to Speyer.

  • 25TH MARCH Richard was brought to Speyer and handed over to Henry VI, holy roman emperor, who imprisoned and him in Trifles castle

1194

  • 4TH FEBRUARY: Richard is released from captivity the the ransom of 150,000 marks was paid and Richard returned home to England.

  • 12TH MARCH Richard I of England is ransomed from Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor

  • 17TH APRIL Richard is crowned for the second time at Winchester

  • 2ND MAY The port of Portsmouth in England is granted a Royal Charter

  • for Barfleur in Normandy, to reclaim lands lost to Philip II of France

  • 12TH MAY: Richard leaves England again for Barfleur in Normandy, to reclaim lands lost to Philip II of France

  • 3RD JULY: The Battle Of Fréteval, war between Richard as King of England, and Philip II France

1196

  • OCTOBER: Richard’s sister Joan of England married for a second time, to Raymond VI of Toulouse.

1197

  • Richard’s half-sister through his mother died Alix of France

  • Arbroath Abbey is consecrated, and dedicated to St. Thomas Becket.

1198

  • 11TH MARCH: Richard’s half-sister through his mother died, Marie of France

  • 27TH SEPTEMBER The Battle Of Gisors, battle between France and England, Richard is commander for England, and Philip II is commander for France. ( Truce Result)

  • John of England captures a party of eighteen French knights & many men-at-arms, in the ongoing conflict against France. Richard introduces a new Great Seal, in an attempt to keep the war against France funded. The government proclaims that charters previously struck with the old seal are no longer valid, and must be renewed with a fresh payment

1199

  • MARCH: Richard was in Limousin, France suppressing a revolt by Viscount Aimar V of Limoges.

  • 25TH MARCH Richard is shot in the left shoulder with a crossbow, by French boy Pierre Basile, at the siege of the castle of Châlus in FranceThe war between the kingdoms of England and France has become so brutal, that Hugh of Lincoln is warned that "nothing now is safe, neither the city to dwell in nor the highway for travel"

  • 6TH APRIL: Richard died at Châlus, Duchy of Aquitaine from gangrene, in the arms of his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine; of died of a crossbow bolt wound duchy of Aquitaine, at the age of 41yearold

 

King Richard 1st of England, was buried in Fontevraud Abbey, Anjou, France.

EXTRA FACTS ON RICHARD I ENGLAND

  • Richard was King of England forten years and the son of Henry II of England.

 

  • Also known as “Richard The Lion heart”, because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.

 

 

  • Great, great, grandson of William the conqueror and the brother, to the future King John of England

 

 

  • Richard spoke both French and Occitan, which is a Romance language spoken mainly in southern France, and, also in Monaco, in the Aran Valley

 

  • He was born in England, where he spent allot of his childhood; however, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine, in the southwest of France

 

  • Alys, of France, to whom Richard had been contracted to, not only stayed in England ashis father ward, but there were widespread rumours that Henry had not only made Alys, his mistress, but that she had borne him a child

 

  • in 1170. Richards fifteen-year-old Henry was crowned king during his father’s lifetime, something originally practised by the French Capetian dynasty and adopted by the English kings Stephen and Henry II.

 

  • In 1183, a family conflicts broke out, over the status of England, Normandy and Aquitaine. Henry II, supported his son Richard. Henry the young king died shortly after, and then Richard was named his heir, however, then Henry decided to split the titles that Richard had, but  Richard would not give up the right s to Aquitaine, which led to another family war. The war carried on into 1184, ending in a stale mate situation.

 

  • Richard also had hatred towards the Jews, he barred all Jews and women from the investiture, but some Jewish leaders arrived to give present gifts to Henry at his coronation, According to Ralph of Diceto, Richard's courtiers stripped and flogged the Jews, then flung them out of court When a rumour spread that Richard what he had ordered all Jews to be killed, the people of London attacked the Jewish population, their homes were burned, and many were forcibly baptised.

 

  • In 1188. Henry II, Richards father had planned, to give Aquitaine to his youngest son John, (Future john of England)this anger Richard, as he felt passionately Aquitaine was personally his, this led up to Richard wanting to take England from his Father for himself.

 

 

  • When Richard decided he wanted a third crusade he set about raising huge sums of money required for this expedition through the sale of lands, title. Also, he planned the run of his kingdom while he would be away

 

  • Richard's heart was buried at Rouen in Normandy, the entrails in Châlus (where he died) and the rest of his body was buried at the feet of his father at Fontevraud Abbey in Anjou .

POLITICAL ROLES IN THE COURT OF RICHARD I ENGLAND

NAME
WILLIAM OF ELY
 
EUSTACE
 
 
RICHARD FITZNEAL
WILLIAM DE LONGCHAMP
 
 
WILLIAM MARSHAL
HUBERT WALTER

ROLE IN COURT

  • LORD HIGH TREASURER  1196–1215

  • KEEPER OF THE GREAT SEAL 1197–1198

  • LORD CHANCELLOR 1198

  • LORD TREASURER 1159–1196

  • LORD CHANCELLOR, 1189–1197

  • CHIEF JUSTICIAR 1189

  • REGENT WHILE RICHARD WAS ON HIS THIRD CRUSADE

  • LORDS MARSHAL

  • CHIEF JUSTICIAR 1193–1198

RICHARD I ENGLAND IN FICTION  ON SCREEN

FILM/ DRAMA
 
The Devil's Crown
Ivanhoe
Ivanhoe
Kingdom of Heaven
King Richard and the Crusaders
Lionheart
The Lion in Winter
The Lion in Winter
Robin and Marian
Robin Hood
Robin Hood
Robin Hood
Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves
Robin Hood: Men in Tights
Richard the Lionheart: Rebellion
The Men of Sherwood Forest
The Zany Adventures of Robin Hood

DATE PREMIERED

 

1978

1952

1997

2005

1954

1987

1968

2003

1976

2010

1973

1953

1991

1993

2015

1954

1984

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