RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON KING RICHARD THE II OF ENGLAND. RICHARD WAS THE GRANDSON OF KING EDWARD THE III OF ENGLAND HIS PREDECESSOR AND COUSIN TO HIS SUCCESSOR HENRY IV OF ENGLAND.

THE TIME LINE OF RICHARD II ENGLAND

1367
  • 6TH JANUARY Richard is born to Edward of Woodstock, the Black Prince and Joan, 4th countess of Kent at Bordeaux, Duchy of Aquitaine
1370
  • 20TH SEPTEMBER Richard’s brother Edward of Angouleme died
1376
  • 8TH JUNE Richards father, an heir to England’s throne Edward of Woodstock, the “Black Prince” died
  • Richard is titled Prince of Wales Duke of Cornwall
1377
  • 27TH JANUARY  The Bad Parliament begins sitting in England. Influenced by John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, it undoes the work done by the Good Parliament, the previous year, to reduce corruption in the Royal Council. Fighting the war was very expensive and in February 1377 the government introduced a poll-tax where four pence was to be taken from every man and woman over the age of fourteen. "
  • 21ST JUNE Edward the III of England is dead, and now Richard is king of England
  • 16TH JULY The coronation of Richard as king of England, the second of his name. Richard was crowned by Simon Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury.
1378
  • MARCH John Wycliffe tries to promote his ideas for Catholic reform by laying his theses before Parliament and making them public in a tract. He is subsequently summoned before the Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon of Sudbury, at the episcopal palace at Lambeth, to defend his actions.
  • The western schism began
1381
  • MAY-NOVEMBER The Peasants' Revolt.
  • JUNE Richard met with the peasants and promised to meet some of their demands. . Richard bravely rode out to meet the rebels, who were led by Tyler. Wat Tyler was killed and the revolt crushed
  • JUNE 14TH Peasants' Revolt: Rebels destroy John of Gaunt's Savoy Palace and storm the Tower of London, killing the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord Chancellor. King Richard II of England meets the leaders of the revolt and agrees to reforms such as fair rents, and the abolition of serfdom.
  • JUNE 15TH Wat Tyler was killed and the revolt crushed
  • Richard’s brother John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter is made a knight of the garter
  • DECEMBER Anne of Bohemia arrives in England
1382
  • 20TH JANUARY Richard married Anne of Bohemia at Westminster Abbey
  • 22ND JANUARY The coronation of Anne of Bohemia as queen consort of England. Anne was crowned by William Courtenay, Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • Richard and his wife did a tour realm together
  • MAY 21ST John Wycliffe's teachings are condemned by the Synod of London, which becomes known as the "Earthquake Synod" after its meetings are disrupted by a minor earthquake
  •  25TH JUNE The Battle of North Walsham
        Result Bishop of Norwich’s forces' victory
1384
  • Richard’s half-sister lady Joan Holland died
1385
  • Richard does an expedition to Scotland.
  • AUGUST: After Richard’s half-brother John Holland killed a favourite of the Queen, Richard mothers pleaded for her son’s life to Richard. for four days, and died on fifth, Richard did spare him.
  • 6TH AUGUST Edmund of Langley is elevated to become the first Duke of York
  • 7TH AUGUST Richards mother Joan, 4th countess of Kent died, Wallingford castle, Wallingford
1386
  • MARCH 8TH  Richard  grants John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, control of all royal lands in Ireland
  • MAY 9TH – King John I of Portugal and King Richard II of England ratify the Treaty of Windsor.
  • 24TH JUNE: Richard’s half-brother John Holland married Elizabeth of Lancaster, the daughter of his uncle John of Gaunt, at Plymouth
  • JULY John of Gaunt leaves England to make good his claim to the throne of Castile by right of his second marriage to Constanza of Castile in 1371.
  • NOVEMBER: the wonderful parliament, English parliamentary session
  • John of Gaunt left England to seek the throne of Castile, marrying
1387
  • JUNE 2ND John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon.
  • Richard had his uncle Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Richard Fitz Alan, 11th earl of Arundel arrested for their part in the lord’s appellant,
  • 19TH DECEMBER The Battle of Radcot Bridge. Which was a battle fought between troops loyal to Richard II, led by court favourite Robert De Vere, and an army captained by Henry Bolingbroke (Future Henry IV of England)
1388
  • FEBRUARY -JUNE The Merciless parliament, Richard’s misrule brought England to the brink of civil war. The entire court of Richard II of England is convicted of treason by the Merciless Parliament, under the influence of the Lords Appellant, and are all either executed or exiled. Richard II effectively becomes a puppet of the Lords Appellant.
  • The revision of Wycliffe's Bible is completed by John Purvey, and Wyclif's followers, known as the Lollards, begin to be persecuted in England.
  • John of Gaunt,, the uncle of Richard II of England, makes peace with Castile and gives up his claim to the Castilian throne, by allowing his daughter Catherine of Lancaster to marry Prince Henry, the eldest son of John I of Castile.
1389
  • Richard regained control of his realm, John of Gaunt returned to England persuading the lords appellant and  Richard to compromise to usher in a period of relative stability
1390
  • Richard granted his uncle John of Gaunt,t the title Duke of Aquitaine:
 1394
  • 7TH JUNE Richard wife Anne of Bohemia died at Sheen Palace
  • AUTUMN: Richard left England to go to Ireland army of more than 8,000 men, invasion was a success
  • Richard II of England grants Geoffrey Chaucer 20 pounds a year for life, for his services as a diplomat and Clerk of The King's Works.
1395
  • MAY: Richard left Ireland
  • Richard, was devoted to the cult of Edward the Confessor had his own arms impaled with the mythical arms of the confessor
  • The Diptych was painted for King Richard II of England who is depicted kneeling before the Virgin and Child in what is known as a donor portrait. The artist, sometimes referred to as the "Wilton Master", has never been identified,
1396
1397
  • 8TH JANUARY The coronation of Isabel of Valois, Richard’s consort. Isabella was crowned by Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • 25TH APRIL Thomas Holland died
  • 8TH OR 9TH SEPTEMBER Richards uncle Thomas of Woodstock is murdered in prison while awaiting trial this caused a rise in Richards unpopularity as it was thought it was under Richards behalf the murder
  • Richard   attempts to reassert authority over his kingdom, by arresting members of a group of powerful barons known as the Lords Appellant
  • John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon is created Duke of Exeter, by his half-brother by Richard. Thomas Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent, John's brother, is created Duke of Surrey by Richard.
  • NOVEMBER 8TH Thomas Arundel, accused of high treason by Richard, is replaced by Roger Walden as Archbishop of Canterbury.
1398
  • Richard summoned parliament, known as the parliament of Shrewsbury
  • SEPTEMBER Richard exiled Henry Bolingbroke, after a quarrel with Thomas Mowbray, originally for 10years, however after his father John of Gaunt death, this extended to exile for life.
1399
  • Richard took an expedition to Ireland
  • 3RD FEBRUARY John of Gaunt, Richard’s uncle died.
  • Richard cancels the legal documents allowing the exiled Henry Bolingbroke to inherit his father's land.
  • While Richard is away on a military campaign in Ireland, Henry Bolingbroke, with exiled former Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Arundel as an advisor, returns to England and begins a military campaign to reclaim his confiscated land. After regaining his power, Henry Bolingbroke is urged to take the crown from the unpopular Richard II. Richard is taken prisoner upon his return from Ireland and eventually forced to abdicate. Parliament then charges Richard with committing crimes against his subjects
  • JUNE: Henry Bolingbroke (Future Henry IV of England)landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire, and invaded England, with a small army that grew in numbers quickly.
  • 19TH AUGUST Richard surrendered to Henry at Flint castle, promising to abdicate if his life were spared
  • 30TH SEPTEMBER Richard is forced to abdicate, and Henry Bolingbroke is now Henry IV of England
  • OCTOBER Richard is imprisoned in the Tower of London.
  • 13TH OCTOBER Richard was formally deposed. Henry IV of England is crowned.
  • Richard remained in Tower London until end of the year and then he was in Pontefract castle
  • DECEMBER The Epiphany Rising: the plot to get rid, Henry IV and place Richard back on the throne, the plot failed.
1400
  • JANUARY Henry IV of England quells the Epiphany Rising and executes the Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury, and the Baron le Despencer, for their attempt to have Richard II restored as king.
  • 16TH JANUARY Richards half-brother John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter died
  • 14TH FEBRUARY Richard is dead, It is believed to have starved to death. in  his imprisonment at Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire
 
Richard II of England was buried on the 6th March 1400, at Kings Langley, Hertfordshire 1413

EXTRA FACTS ON RICHARD II ENGLAND

  • Richard was King of England for twenty-two years.
 
  • He was the Grandson of Edward the III of England, through his father Edward the Black prince
 
  • Richard was a first Cousin to the future Henry IV of England
 
  • Richard’s mother, Joan of Kent, was granddaughter of Edward I England and a second cousin to his father, Edward the Black Prince.
 
  • Sir Simon Burley, had been a close friend of Richards father Edward and also a tutor in Richards education.
 
 
  • The country was ruled largely by Richard's  uncle, John of Gaunt.
 
  • When he got older, Richard took control of his own government, but he surrounded himself with favourites, who were otherwise unpopular. Parliament demanded the dismissal of these ‘favourites’. When he refused, a commission was created to oversee the king’s activities.
 
  • Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland and Richard had a very close relationship and many put rumours around that it was homosexual.
 
  • The Merciless Parliament, a term coined by Augustinian chronicler Henry Knighton, refers to the English parliamentary session of February to June 1388, at which many members of Richard II' Court were convicted of treason. The session was preceded by a period in which Richard's power was revoked and the kingdom placed under the regency of the Lords Appellant.
 
 
  • Richard second wife, Isabel of Valois, was a child bride married at only seven years old. She was also the older sister of the future Henry V wife, Catherine of Valois.
 
 
  • Many did not trust John of Gaunt, he had great influence in the minority of Richards reign, many thought he might seize the throne for himself.
 
  • Richard II became the first king to visit Ireland since 1210 and the last to do so before the 1690s.

POLITICAL ROLES IN THE COURT OF RICHARD II ENGLAND

FICTIONAL PORTRAYALS OF RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

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