RICHARD NEVILLE

Who was Richard Neville and why was he nicknamed The Kingmaker?

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON RICHARD NEVILLE THE 16TH EARL OF WARWICK. RICHARD WAS NICKNAMED "THE KINGMAKER" HE WAS COUSIN TO BOTH HENRY VI AND EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND AND FATHER TO FUTURE QUEEN CONSORT ANNE NEVILLE, THE WIFE OF RICHARD III.

TIME-LINE OF RICHARD NEVILLE

                                         
1428
  • 22ND NOVEMBER Richard Neville was born in at Bisham, Berkshire England the son of Richard Neville, 5th earl of Salisbury and Alice Montacute, 5th countess of Salisbury
1430
  • Lady Alice Neville, Richard’s younger sister is born
1431
  • John Neville, Richard’s younger brother is born.
1432
  • George, Richard’s younger brother is born.
1434
  • Richard was betrothed to Anne Beauchamp
  • Cecily Neville, Richard’s older sister married Henry de Beauchamp, 14th earl and 1st duke of Warwick.. Henry Beauchamp was the brother of Richard’s betrothed Anne Beauchamp
1438
  • Lady Eleanor, Richard’s sister is born
1442
  • Katherine, Richards younger sister is born
1443
  • Thomas, Richard’s brother is born
1444
  • lady Margaret, Richard’s sister is born.
  • 23RD APRIL: King  Henry VI of England  married at Titchfield Abbey Margaret of Anjou
1445
1446
  • Cecily, Richard’s sister died
1449
  • Richard is created 16th earl of Warwick. after the death of Anne Beauchamp, Richard’s niece.
  • Richard is in the service of Henry VI of England
  • Cecily Richard’s sister married for a second time, to John Tiptoft, 1st earl of Worcester
1450
  • 26TH JULY: Richard’s older sister Cecily died 15th countess of Warwick..
1451
  • 5TH SEPTEMBER Isabel, Richards oldest daughter is born in Warwick. castle.
  • Richard’s sister Eleanor married Thomas Stanley
1452
  • When Richard,3rd Duke of York, unsuccessfully rose up against the king, both Richard and his father rallied to the side of King Henry VI
1453
  • JUNE Richard fell out with Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, after King Henry VI granted Somerset control of Glamorgan which had been held by Warwick as part of his Despenser heritage.
  • AUGUST King Henry VI suffered a mental breakdown and was unfit to rule. The Duke of Somerset, a favourite of King Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou took control of the government.
  • SEPTEMBER Richard was annoyed that his enemy, Somerset, had control and turned his favour to Richard Duke of York.
  • 13TH OCTOBER King Henry VI of England’s and Margaret of Anjou son Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster. He was created Duke of Cornwall.
1454
1455
  • Henry VI returns to power.
  • 3rd MAY With the King under his control, Richard Duke of York became Protector of the realm again.
  •  22ND MAY First Battle of St Albans. Richard is present. the battle between houses York and Lancaster, the location of St Albans in Hertfordshire, England. the start of the war of the roses.
       Result Decisive Yorkist Victory
  • Richard is made the captain of Calais
1456
1457
  • Richard was recalled to Westminster to explain why he had attacked the Spanish and German ships when England was at war with neither country.
1458
  • Richard’s sister lady Katherine, married her first husband, William Bonville, 6th baron Harington of Aldingham
  • MAY Richard defeats a Spanish fleet in the English channel
  • After a brawl broke out between his men and members of the Royal household, Warwick, fearing that he may be murdered, fled to Calais.
1459
  • SEPTEMBER: Richard crossed over to England and made his way north to Ludlow to meet up with the Earl of Salisbury
  • 23RD SEPTEMBER Battle Of Battle Of Blore Heath   Richard’s brother John and his father Richard are present at the and were captured.
  • 12TH OCTOBER Battle Of Ludford Bridge. Richard is present. the battle between Houses of York and Lancaster. location was by Ludford Bridge, south of Ludlow, in Shropshire, England. Richard is betrayed by Andrew Trollope.
        Result Lancastrian Victory
1460
  • MARCH: Richard visited his uncle Richard 3rd Duke of York in Ireland.
  • George Richard’s brother is made lord chancellor of England
  • 26TH JUNE Richard and Edward, Earl of March the eldest son of Richard land in England with an army, and march on London.
  • 10TH JULY Battle Of Northampton: Richard is present. with his brother George between houses York and Lancaster. location, Northampton in Northamptonshire, England
       Result Yorkist Victory
  • Richard was made lord warden of the cinque ports
  • 25TH OCTOBER The Act Of Accord was passed by the English parliament. under the act, king Henry vi of England was to retain the crown for life but York and his heirs were to succeed, excluding Henry VI son Edward of Westminster. Henry VI was forced to agree to the act.
  • :30TH DECEMBER Battle Of Wake Field. between the houses of York and Lancaster. location Wakefield, in West Yorkshire, England
  Result Decisive Lancastrian Victory
  •  Many of Richard’s family members are killed here. Richards uncle the Richard 3rd Duke of York and his son Edmund are killed.
  •  Richard’s sister Katherine's, husband and father in law are executed after the battle by the Lancastrians. Richard’s brother and father are present at this battle, his father escapes however his brother Thomas is killed.
  • After the death of Richard 3rd Duke of York, George and Richard the duke’s sons go under Richards care.
  • 31st DECEMBER: Richard’s father Richard Neville, 5th earl of Salisbury died.
1461
  • 17TH FEBRUARY: Second Battle Of St Albans. Richard is present. between the houses of York and Lancaster. location St Albans in Hertfordshire, England  Result Lancastrian Victory              
  • Richard and Edward of York joined forces and marched towards London.
  • 4TH MARCH Henry VI of England has been deposed and now Edward Earl of March, Richard’s cousin is king of England
  • 28th MARCH: Battle Of Ferrybridge: Richard is present. between the houses of York and Lancaster. location Ferrybridge in Yorkshire, England
        Result Indecisive
  • 29TH MARCH: Battle Of Towton: Richard is present: between the houses of York and Lancaster: location near Towton in Yorkshire, England.
        Result Decisive Yorkist Victory
  • 28TH JUNE: The coronation of Edward IV of England
1462
  • 6TH FEBRUARY Katherine Richard’s sister married for a second time to William Hastings1st baron Hastings. this marriage was arranged by Richard himself.
  • Richard has created Earl of Salisbury he also inherited his mother's land.
  • SUMMER: Richard was negotiating a truce with Scotland
  • 9th SEPTEMBER: Richard’s older sister Joan died.
  • 9th DECEMBER: Richard’s mother Alice Montacute, 5th countess of Salisbury died
1463
  • JANUARY Richard re-captured Alnwick and Bamburgh castle back from French troops of Margaret of Anjou
  • John Neville, Lord Montagu, Richard’s brother was made warden of the east march
  • MARCH Ralph Percy and northern nobles rose in support of Henry VI and took Northumberland and Norham. Richard returned to the north and took Norham but was unable to take Northumberland. Unable to put the rebellions down, Warwick negotiated a truce with France which would be sealed with the marriage of Edward IV to the French King’s sister. Without French support, the Lancastrians were unable to maintain there hold on the north. The leaders of the rebellion were executed.
1464
  • Richard tried to negotiate a French marriage for Edward IV of England, with King Louis XI sister in law bona, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, this marriage would not happen
  • 1ST MAY Edward IV of England secretly married Elizabeth Woodville.
  • SEPTEMBER Edward IV announced that he married the commoner, Elizabeth Woodville, this was the start of the break-in alliance between Richard and Edward IV of England. Richard is offended and embarrassed by the king’s choices in this marriage.
1465
  • George, Richard’s brother is made archbishop of York
  • 24th JULY Richard escorts the captured deposed king Henry VI to the tower of London.
1466
  • SPRING was sent to the continent to carry out negotiations with the French and Burgundians. the negotiations centred around a marriage proposal involving King Edward IV sister Margaret
1467
  • JANUARY Mary Woodville married William Herbert nothing seems to have aggravated Warwick. more than the marriage of the lady Mary, the queen's sister
  • JULY Richard is now a deputy in Calais
  • OCTOBER Richard learned that King Edward had gone behind his back and signed a treaty with the Burgundians. Richard was frustrated and annoyed that Edward favoured his wife’s relatives rather than his trusted advisors
  • OCTOBER: Rumour goes around that Richard is sympathetic to the Lancastrians cause, however when called to court to answer, he refused to go. Instead, put his answer in writing. the king accepted his denial in writing
1469
  • APRIL Richard secretly organized a rebellion against Edward in the North. The rebellion was quickly put down by the Yorkists
  • 11TH JULY Richard’s daughter Isabel married the  George Plantagenet, duke of Clarence. Brother to King Edward IV.
  • there is a lot of growing discontent with Edward IV reign in England. Richard takes advantage of this and uses people’s discontent to his advantage.
  • the first rebellion against King Edward IV England. Richard is part of this rebellion. which Leeds to capture and imprisonment of the king.
  • 26TH JULY: Battle Of Edgecote Moor: Richard is present: the battle between the houses of York and houses of Lancaster. The location is at Danes Moor in Northamptonshire, England. Richard raised an army of northern rebels led by Sir John Conyers, Edward’s cousin. They defeated a force of Welsh loyalists led by William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. Result Rebel Victory Edward IV England is captured at this battle. and then imprisoned at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale,
  • SEPTEMBER: Richard releases Edward iv from his custody as he was Failing to gain the support of the nobility and with the country descending into disorder Warwick was forced to release Edward
  • Richard appoints John Green as his deputy.
1470
  • MARCH: Richard and his son in law George Duke Clarence plan a rebellion against Edward IV again, the rebellion failed and they fled to France.
  • 17TH APRIL: Richard’s daughter Isabel gives birth to a baby boy, but the baby dies at seas
  • 13 TH SEPTEMBER: Richard and the Duke of Clarence at the head of an army returned to England and landed at Plymouth.
  • 2ND OCTOBER Edward IV had fled to the Netherlands. Forced into exile.
  • 3RD OCTOBER: Edward IV of England has been disposed and now Henry VI is back on the English throne.
  • Richard is made lord high admiral
  • Richard’s daughter Anne married Edward of Westminster in anger cathedral. Anne becoming the princess of wales
1471
  • 14TH MARCH Edward IV returned to England, landing at Ravenspur in Yorkshire at the head of a Burgundian Yorkist army. He was joined by the Earl of Northumberland and his brother George Duke of Clarence who defected from Richard.
  • 2ND APRIL George Duke of Clarence returns to support his brother Edward IV side, abandoning Richard.
  • 11TH APRIL Henry VI is now deposed as king, and now Edward IV is back on the English throne
  • 14TH APRIL: Richard was killed in the Battle of Barnet along with his younger brother John.
 
Richard Neville was buried in Bisham Abbey, Berkshire

EXTRA FACTS ON RICHARD NEVILLE

  • Richard Neville, was the 16th Earl of Warwick and was a military commander and nicknamed the “Kingmaker “He was given this title, due to his high pollical influence in in a Royal succession.

 

  • He was from the House of Neville, which was founded before 1129, they were an ancient Durham family, came to prominence in England's fourteenth-century wars against the Scots

 

  • Richard was a great, great grandson of Edward III of England, through his father’s bloodline and descendant of Edward I England through his mother’s bloodline.

 

  • Richard had no sons, only two daughters. Both of his daughters married Richard’s first cousins, Isabel married George Plantagenet Duke of Clarence, and Anne was to marry the future Richard III and become Queen consort of England, twelve years after her father’s death.

 

  • During the Wars of The Roses, Richard initially gave his support to the Yorkists, however when Edward IV married the Elizabeth Woodville, this triggered Richard to eventually change his alliances to The Lancastrians

 

  • Richard attempted to put Edward IV England’s brother George Duke of Clarence failed. George had joined forces with Richard, however, later George realised his loyalty to his father-in-law was misplaced and re-joined his brother Edward.

 

  • Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick., was Richard’s future grandson, who was imprisoned in the tower from being a young boy by Henry VII (Tudor) England and then executed in late 1499 by the same Tudor King.

 

 

  • Margaret (Pole) Plantagenet, was Richard’s granddaughter through his daughter Isabel. Margaret would be remembered to be the last Plantagenet who would be executed by the future Tudor King Henry VIII of England.

 

  • Lady Alice Neville, Richard’s younger sister was the great, grandmother of future queen consort Catherine Parr.

 

 

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FAMILY TREE OF RICHARD NEVILLE

FAMILY TREE OF RICHARD NEVILLE

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