ROBERT II OF SCOTLAND

Who was the real Robert the II of Scotland and what was important about his reign?

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON KING ROBERT II OF SCOTLAND, WHO WAS THE FIRST IN LONG LINE OF STUART MONARCHS. ROBERT WAS THE GRANDSON OF ROBERT THE BRUCE AND A NEPHEW TO HIS PREDECESSOR DAVID II OF SCOTLAND.

TIMELINE OF ROBERT II OF SCOTLAND

1316
  • 2ND MARCH: Robert  Stewart was born to Walter Stewart and Marjorie Bruce who died giving birth to him
1326
  • JULY: King Robert 1st of Scotland,  put Robert in the line of succession in case his own son David died without an heir.
1327
  • 25TH JANUARY: King Edward II of England  is deposed as king, and his son Edward III as king of England
  • 9TH APRIL: Robert's father Walter Stewart 6th high steward of Scotland, died at Bathgate castle
  • Robert is placed under the guardianship of his uncle Sir James Stewart of Durrisdeer.
1329
  • 7TH JUNE: Robert 1st Scotland is dead, and David, Roberts 5yearold uncle is now king of Scots.
1331
  • 24TH NOVEMBER: The coronation of King David, the second of his name.
1332
  • 10TH AUGUST: The Battle Of Dupplin Moor was fought between supporters of the infant David II, the son of Robert the Bruce, and rebels supporting the Edward Balliol the pretender to the Scottish throne.
      The Result Was A Victory For Edward Balliol
  • 16TH DECEMBER: The Battle Of Annan, which was a battle between royal loyalists and, Edward Balliol
       Result Royal Victory Result
1333
  • 8TH JUNE  King Edward III of England seizes the Isle of Man from Scottish control
  • 19TH JULY: The Battle Of Halidon Hill Robert fought at this battle Robert fled and avoided, capture when the lands he owned were overrun by Edward Balliol rebels and gained protection at Dumbarton castle where King David was also taking refuge also at the same time.
1334
  • MAY: David escaped to France leaving Robert and John Randolph, 3rd earl of moray as joint guardians of the kingdom.
  • Robert set his mind on getting his land back that had been taken from him by rebels
1335
  • 30TH JULY Battle of Boroughmuir: John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray defeats Guy, Count of Namur in Scotland
  • 30TH NOVEMBER: The Battle Of Culblean, This was between Scotland and followers of Edward Balliol
       Result (. Royalist Victory
1336
  • Robert married his mistress Elizabeth Mure
  • Aberdeen is burned by the English.
1337
  • Roberts eldest son and heir, the future Robert III of Scotland is born, primarily as John, earl of Carrick
  • JULY English forces relieve Stirling Castle, ending Edward III of England's last campaign in Scotland.
1338
  • Robert’s second son Walter Stewart is born
1340
  • Robert’s third son Robert Stewart is born
1343
  • Roberts fourth son Alexander Stewart is born
1346
  • 17TH OCTOBER The Battle Of Neville's Cross,, Part of the Hundred Years' War and the Second War of Scottish Independence.T his was a battle between England and Scotland, Robert is a  commander at this battle  Result (English Victory)
  • King David II Scotland is taken prisoner by England and is first placed in the Tower of London, and then Windsor castle.
1349
  • Robert re-married Elizabeth Mure due to the fact that the marriage was criticised as uncanonical, following a papal dispensation. and had all his children by her legitimised.
1350
  • Scotland suffers from the Black Death
1355
  • APRIL Roberts wife, Elizabeth Mure died
  • 2ND MAY: Robert married his second wife Euphemia De Ross
1356
  • 20TH JANUARY Edward Balliol surrendered his claim to the Scottish throne to Edward III in exchange for an English pension
  • Burnt Candlemas: King Edward III of England burns down every town and village in Lothian, Scotland.
1357
  • Robert ‘son David Stewart is born,
  • King David II is released from captivity in return for a ransom and returns home to Scotland.
1358
  • Robert’s daughter Elizabeth Stewart, is born around this point?
1360
  • Roberts fifth son Walter Stewart is born
1362
  • Roberts second son Walter Stewart died
  • Roberts son Robert Stewart, married Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith
  • 7TH SEPTEMBER  Joan of The Tower, Queen consort of King David II of Scotland died
  • Robert’s grandson Murdoch Stewart is born, from his son Robert.
1364
  • 20TH FEBRUARY: King David II Scotland married Margaret Drummond,
1367
1371
  • 22ND FEBRUARY: King David  II of Scotland is dead. Robert is now king of Scotland at scone abbey.
  • 26TH MARCH: The coronation of Robert as king of Scotland the second of his name. Robert was crowned by William de Landallis, Bishop of St Andrews          
  • 27TH MARCH: Son David Stewart is given the title of Earl of Strathearn
  • The Treaty Of Vincennes-Edinburgh
1373
  • Robert declared, his son, John Carrick, future Robert III Scotland as his heir.
  • Robert ensured the future security of the Stewart dynasty by having parliament pass entailments regarding the succession. at this time, none of his sons had heirs so it became necessary for a system to be devised to define precisely the circumstances in which each of his sons could inherit the crown
1375
  • 22ND FEBRUARY Robert's daughter Elizabeth Stewart, Princess of Scotland, married David Lindsay. her dowry was the barony of Strathnairn in Inverness-shire
1377
1378
  • Roberts son Walter Stewart married Margaret Barclay, lady of Brechin
  • France, Aragon, Castile and León, Cyprus, Burgundy, Savoy, Naples and Scotland choose to recognize Antipope Clement VII.
1384
  • Robert son John Carrick (future Robert III), is given by the government, the kings' authority to rule
  • A truce is arranged between England, Scotland, and France. Scotland refuses to recognize truce. Anglo Scottish war resumes
1385
  • 31ST AUGUST King Richard II of England begins an invasion of Scotland. The English burn Holyrood and Edinburgh but return home without a decisive battle. The Scottish army, was led by James Douglas, capturing the English leader, Harry Hotspur. James Douglas is killed during the battle.
1386
  • Euphemia De Ross, Roberts second wife died.
  • Robert’s son David Stuart title of Earl of Strathearn died
1388
  • AUGUST: The Battle Of Otterburn, This battle was between England and Scotland
       Result Scottish Victory
1389
  • Robert son John of Carrick, future Robert III of Scotland is injured in an accident
1390
  • MARCH Robert returned to Dundonald castle in Ayrshire
  • 19TH APRIL: Robert II of Scotland died, Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire at the age of 74years.
 
Robert II of Scotland was buried in Scone Abbey

ADDITIONAL FACTS ON ROBERT II OF SCOTLAND

  • Robert Stewart was King of Scotland for just over twenty-one years.

.

  • Robert was Nephew of King David II of Scotland

 

  • Robert was the first Monarch from the house of Stewart.

 

  • The name "Stewart" comes from the political position of office similar to a governor, known as a steward. The name was adopted as the family surname by Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland. Walters father was Alan Fitz Walter, 2nd High Steward of Scotland, so it was Fitz Walter the name previous

 

  • Robert’s 19-year-old mother Marjorie, was heavily pregnant and was out riding near the abbey when she fell off her horse and went into premature labour. She was carried into the abbey where she gave birth to a boy, by an early form of a caesarean section, which the child survived, but she did not. Some historians are sceptical of the story.

 

  • Robert's mother Marjorie Bruce, was the daughter of King Robert 1st of Scotland, from the House of Bruce. When her brother David, died without any heirs, then the monarchy of Scotland, passed down to her son Robert

 

  • Robert had also been a regent for King David II Scotland

 

  • There was an enmity later in time between King David and Robert, for when David returned from being captive in England, part of the agreement was that If the ransom was not paid, that England had asked for in return for David to return to Scotland, then a Plantagenet should be the heir to the Scottish throne, if David had no heir, this however was not supported by the government.

 

  • An armed protest by William, Earl of Douglas put delays on Robert II's coronation as well as disputes, regarding Robert's right of succession,

 

  • Allot of Roberts reign was done through his sons, and event,ually under guardianship, Robert was in ill health, physically and mentally.

POLITICAL OFFICES IN THE COURT OF

ROBERT II OF SCOTLAND

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