ROBERT THE BRUCE

Who was Robert the Bruce and what was his role in Scottish History?

Timeline and additional facts on Robert the Bruce. Robert not only became King of Scotland, but was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, and eventually led Scotland during the first war of Scottish independence against England.

TIME-LINE OF ROBERT THE BRUCE

 
 

1274

  • 11TH JULY Robert Bruce was born in Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire in Scotland the son of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick

1278

  • Christina Bruce, Robert's younger sister was born

1279

  • Nigel de Brus, Robert's younger brother is born,

1282

  • Mary Bruce Robert's younger sister is born.

1284

  • FEBRUARY Robert's father attended to the convention at Scone Abbey, where the right of succession of Alexander III' granddaughter, Margaret, Maid of Norway was recognized.

  • Sir Thomas de Brus is born the younger brother to Robert.

1285

  • Alexander de Brus is born, Robert's younger brother.

1286

  • 19TH MARCH King Alexander III of Scotland is dead

  • 25TH NOVEMBER Margaret, Maid of Norway is Queen of Scotland.,

1289

  • OCTOBER King Edward 1st of England.  Robert and others at Salisbury which resulted in the Treaty of Salisbury,

1290

  • 26TH SEPTEMBER Queen Margaret, Maid of Norway died.

  • Edward Bruce is born, Robert younger brother.

1292

  • Robert became Earl of Carrick 1292–1314

  • 9TH NOVEMBER Marjorie of Carrick, Robert's mother died

  • 17TH NOVEMBER John Balliol is declared King of Scotland

1293

  • Robert's sister Isabel Bruce is Queen consort of Norway.

1295

  • Marjorie Bruce is born, Robert's daughter with his wife Isabella of Mar

1296

  • 8TH APRIL Robert and his father were pursued through the English Chancery for their private household debts of £60 by several merchants of Winchester

  • 10TH JULY John Balliol abdicated the throne of Scotland

  • Isabella of Mar, Robert's first wife died.

  • 28TH AUGUST Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the "victory parliament" in Berwick.

  • Robert's father remarried for a second time to woman called Eleanor.

1297

  • William Wallace is Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland 1297–1298

1298

  • William Wallace resigned Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland in favour of Robert is a (1298–1300)

  • John III Comyn is a is Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland (1298–1301)

1299

  • William de Lamberton s a is Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland (1299–1301)

1300

  • Sir John de Soules is a is Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland (1301–1304)

  • Robert  later resigned as Guardian of Scotland due to his quarrels with John Comyn and the apparently imminent restoration of King John Balliol.

1301

  • Robert's sister Christina married Sir Christopher Seton

  • JULY King Edward I launched his sixth campaign into Scotland.

1302

  • MARCH Robert sent a letter to the monks at Melrose Abbey apologising for having called tenants of the monks to service in his army when there had been no national call-up

  • Robert re-married for a second time to Elizabeth de Burgh

  • Robert submitted to King Edward 1st England.

1303

  • King Edward 1st of England invaded Scotland again, reaching Edinburgh before marching to Perth. Edward stayed in Perth until July, then proceeded via Dundee, Brechin, and Montrose to Aberdeen, where he arrived in August. From there he marched through Moray to Badenoch before re-tracing his path back south to Dunfermline. With the country now under submission, all the leading Scots, except for William Wallace,

1304

  • 4TH MARCH Sir Robert VI de Brus , Robert's father died.

  • Robert became Lord of Annandale 1304–1312

  • 11TH JUNE Robert and William Lamberton made a pact that bound them, each to the other, in "friendship and alliance against all men." If one should break the secret pact, he would forfeit to the other the sum of ten thousand pounds.

1305

  • 23RD AUGUST William Wallace was hung drawn and Quartered under Edward 1st of England

  • SEPTEMBER King Edward ordered Robert Bruce to put his castle at Kildrummy, "in the keeping of such a man as he himself will be willing to answer for," suggesting that King Edward suspected Robert was not entirely trustworthy and may have been plotting behind his back.

1306

  • 10TH FEBRUARY Robert kills John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch at Greyfriars, Dumfries, Dumfriesshire, Scotland after an argument. Christopher Seton Robert's brother-in-law was present

  • 25TH MARCH Robert the Bruce becomes King of Scotland and is crowned in Scone Abbey along with his wife Elizabeth de Burgh. Christopher Seton was present.

  • 17TH JUNE The Battle of Methven Part of the First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland. Location Methven, west of Perth Result English victory Robert is the commander at the Battle.

  • JUNE Robert headed west to the mountains. He sent his second wife, Elizabeth, his daughter Marjorie, his sisters Christina and Mary Bruce, and Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan to Kildrummy Castle in the north, where his brother Neil could protect them However they were handed over to the English. As punishment, King Edward I of England sent his hostages to different places in England. Princess Marjorie went to the convent at Watton; her aunt Christina Bruce was sent to another convent; Queen Elizabeth was placed under house arrest at a manor house in Yorkshire (because Edward I needed the support of her father, the powerful Earl of Ulster, her punishment was lighter than the others'); and Marjorie's aunt Mary Bruce and the Countess of Buchan were imprisoned in wooden cages, exposed to public view

  • SEPTEMBER Nigel de Brus, Robert's younger brother was executed for high treason by being hanged, drawn, and quartered by the English after being captured at Kildrummy Castle

1307

  • FEBRUARY The Battle of Turnberry Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland Robert is the commander at the Battle. .Location near Turnberry, Scotland Result Inconclusive Robert is the commander at the Battle .along with his brother Edward the Brus

  • 9TH FEBRUARY The Battle of Loch Ryan Part of First War of Scottish Independence Location near Stranraer, Scotland his battle was between England and Scotland Result English victory Robert's younger brothers Thomas de Brus and Alexander de Brus are commanders for Scotland,

  • Sir Thomas de Brus and Alexander de Brus, Robert's younger brothers died.. He had been captured by forces at Loch Ryan, Galloway, Scotland and later executed as a traitor.

  • MARCH Battle of Glen Trool Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland Robert is the commander at the Battle. Location Glen Trool, Scotland.Result Scottish victory

  • 10TH MAY The Battle of Loudoun Hill Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland Robert is the commander at the Battle. Location Loudoun Hill, Ayrshire, Scotland. Result Scottish victory

  • Robert was a guest at Huntly Castle

  • 7TH JULY King Edward 1st of England is dead and now his son Edward II as King of England.

  • DECEMBER The Battle of Slioch Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland. Edward Bruce is commander at the Battle for Scotland . Location Slioch, Drumblade, 1 mile east of Huntly, Aberdeenshire, Scotland Result inconclusive

1308

  • 23RD MAY The Battle of Inverurie Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland Robert is commander at the Battle. Location Oldmeldrum, Aberdeenshire, Scotland Result victory for Robert Bruce

  • MAY The Harrying of Buchan Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland. Location Buchan, Scotland Result victory for Robert Bruce

  • Last meeting of the Scottish Parliament to be held in Gaelic takes place at Taynuilt

  • 29TH JUNE The Battle of the River Dee. Part of Wars of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland. Edward Bruce is commander at the Battle for Scotland . Location near Buittle, Scotland Result Scottish victory

  • AUGUST The Battle of the Pass of Brander Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland Robert is commander at the Battle. Location Bridge of Awe, Lorne, Scotland . Result Victory for Robert the Bruce

  • 25TH DECEMBER Forfar Castle recaptured by Scottish forces

1309

  • 17TH MARCH Robert holds his first Parliament at St. Andrews

  • Philippe IV of France recognised Robert as King of Scotland

1310

  • 24TH FEBRUARY Twelve Scottish bishops swear fealty to Robert as king.

  • AUGUST King Edward II invades Scotland for the first time

  • Robert sends a letter to King Edward II seeking peace but asserting his God-given authority as king of the Scots and addressing Edward as his equal

  • Robert controlled all of Scotland north of the River Tay.

  • 1ST OCTOBER Robert wrote to Edward II of England from Kildrum in Cumbernauld Parish trying, unsuccessfully, to establish peace between Scotland

1311

  • AUGUST Robert retaliates for King Edward II' invasion the previous year by invading northern England.

1312

  • 29TH OCTOBER The Treaty of Inverness between Scotland and Norway secures the friendship of these two countries.

1313

  • 13TH JANUARY Robert expels English troops from Perth

  • 7TH FEBRUARY Robert captures Dumfries

  • 18TH MAY Robert invades the Isle of Man, capturing it in five days

  • The Siege of Roxburgh. Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland. Location Roxburgh Castle, Scotland Result Scottish victory

  • Robert captured Buittle Castle, castle and it was given to Sir James Douglas, Lord of Douglas.

1314

  • John Balliol who had abdicated in 1296 died.

  • 24TH JUNE The Battle of Bannockburn Part of Wars of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland. Robert and his younger brother Edward Bruce are commanders at the Battle for Scotland. Location Bannockburn, south of Stirling, Scotland. Result in a Decisive Scottish victory

  • Marjorie Bruce and Elizabeth, Robert's daughter and wife are finally freed from captivity by King Edward II of England.

  • By this point, Robert had recaptured most of the castles in Scotland once held by the English,

1315

  • Edward Bruce, Robert's brother was declared King of Ireland.

  • 26TH APRIL Scottish Parliament, meeting at Ayr, proclaims Edward as legal heir to King Robert as King Robert had no legal heir at that point.

  • The Siege of Carlisle Part of Wars of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland. Robert and his younger brother Edward Bruce are commander at the Battle. Location Carlisle, England Result English victory

  • Robert;s daughter Marjorie married Walter Stewart . The dowry to her husband included the lands and castle of Bathgate.

1316

  • Mary Bruce Robert's younger sister is married for a second time to Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser and Cowie

  • Majourie Bruce while riding in Gallowhill, Paisley, Renfrewshire while heavily pregnant. Her horse was suddenly startled and threw her to the ground. She went into premature labour and her child, Robert, (Future Robert II of Scotland)was born. Marjorie died soon after

1317

  • Robert rewarded Sir William Oliphant, Lord of Aberdalgie with a number of grants of land including Gaskins, Newtyle, Kinpurnie, Auchtertyre, Balcrais, Muirhouse and Hazelhead.

1318

  • Robert the Bruce besieged Norham castle, in Northumberland, England for nearly a year.

  • 14TH OCTOBER The Battle of Faughart Part of the Bruce campaign in Ireland . This was between Scotland and Ireland at Faughart, County Louth Result Lordship victory

  • Edward Bruce , Robert's brother is killed at Battle of Faughart

1319

  • 20TH SEPTEMBER The Battle of Myton Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland. Location Myton-on-Swale, Yorkshire, England Result Scottish victory

  • 29TH DECEMBER There two-year truce with England, agreed several days earlier, comes into effect

  • Robert gifted the City of Aberdeen in Scotland Forest of Stocket,

1320

  • 6TH APRIL The Scottish nobility submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Robert as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotland's status as an independent kingdom.

1321

  • Robert granted Dingwall Castle with the town and lands of Dingwall to the William, Earl of Ross

1322

  • 14TH OCTOBER The Battle of Old Byland Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland Robert is commander at the Battle. Location Scawton Moor, Yorkshire, England Result Scottish victory

1323

  • 3RD JANUARY Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle signs a peace treaty with Robert the Bruce The act was without royal sanction, and amounted to treason For Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle

  • 5TH MARCH John , Robert's illegitimate son is born.

  • Mary Bruce Robert's younger sister has died

  • Less than three months after Harclay's execution, King Edward II agrees to a thirteen-year truce with Scotland.

1324

  • 5TH MARCH David is born (The Future David II of Scotland) Robert by his wife Elizabeth de Burgh at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife.

  • The Pope recognised Robert I as king of an independent Scotland

1325

  • Robert exchanged lands at Cardross for those of Old Montrose in Angus with Sir David Graham.

  • 22ND JUNE Robert issues a commission to inquire into and report on the rights that had been granted by his predecessors to the citizens of Dundee after they had appealed to him to re-establish those rights

1326

  • 26TH APRIL The Treaty of Corbeil This was an-renewed the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland. It confirmed the obligation of each state to join the other in declaring war if either was attacked by England.

  • Robert held a parliament at the Holyrood Abbey

  • Robert's sister Christina married for a second time to Andrew Murray

1327

  • Robert began suffering from a serious illness

  • NIGHT of 3RD–4TH AUGUST Battle of Stanhope Park Part of First War of Scottish Independence This battle was between England and Scotland Location Stanhope Park, County Durham, England Result Scottish victory

  • John Robert's illegitimate son died

  • 27TH OCTOBER Elizabeth de Burgh, died Robert's second wife died at the royal residence at Cullen, Banffshire, aged around 43 years. Elizabeth was Dunfermline Abbey

1328

  • 25TH JANUARY King Edward II is deposed and now his son Edward is King of England.

  • 27TH MARCH Robert signs the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton that marked English acceptance of Scottish independence.

  • MAY King Edward III of England signed the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, which recognised Scotland as an independent kingdom, and Robert as its king.

  • 17TH JULY fulfilling one part of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, David II of Scotland, the four-year-old son of Robert, and Joan of the Tower, seven-year-old sister of Edward III, is married at Berwick

  • OCTOBER The Pope finally lifted the interdict from Scotland and the excommunication of Robert

  • DECEMBER Robert celebrated Christmas at the hall of Glenkill near Lamlash.

1329

  • MARCH Robert was staying at Glenluce Abbey and at Monreith

  • APRIL Robert visited the shrine of St Ninian at Whithorn. He fasted four or five days and prayed to the saint, before returning by sea to Cardross

  • 7TH JUNE Robert the Bruce died aged fifty-four year at Manor of Cardross, Argyll

     

 

Robert the Bruce was (Body) was buried Dunfermline Abbey–and his heart was buried in Melrose Abbey

EXTRA FACTS ON ROBERT THE BRUCE

  • Robert the Bruce was King of Scotland for twenty-three years.

  • Robert de Brus (Bruce) is Anglicanized 

 

  • Robert was from Clan Bruce and classed as a Anglo-Norman .The surname Bruce comes from the French de Brus or de Bruis, derived from the lands now called Brix, situated between Cherbourg and Valognes in Normandy, France. The foundation for the Bruce royal claim came in 1219 when Robert Bruce, 4th Lord of Annandale married Isobel of Huntingdon, daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon and niece of William the Lion

 

  • Robert was a great-great grandson of King David Ist of Scotland. His mother had Gaelic antecedents. Bruce's grandfather was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during a succession dispute in 1290 - 1292

 

  • There was an old legend that had been passed down, from genereation to generation, that Robert's mother Marjorie of Carrick had taken with his father Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and held captive until he agreed to marry her at Turnberry Castle in 1271

  • Robert would have been educated and been schooled to speak, read and possibly write in the Anglo-Norman language of his Scots-Norman peers and his father's family.

 

  • Robert had eleven children all told. He had one daughter Marjory to his first wife by by Isabella of Mar . He had Four children, Margaret , Matilda, David (Future David II of Scotland) and John all by his second wife Elizabeth de Burgh . Then he had six illegitimate children, Sir Robert Bruce, Walter of Odistoun , Margaret Bruce, Elizabeth Bruce, Christina Bruce and Sir Neil of Carrick .

 

  • The Great Cause was when the Guardians called upon the late Margaret Queen of Scotland's fiancé's father, Edward I of England, to decide between various competitors for the Scottish throne

 

  • Both Robert and his father refused to back John Balliol as King of Scotland and supported King Edward I's invasion of Scotland in 1296.This was  in a bid to force John Balliol to abdicate. King Edward then ruled Scotland as a province of England. Robert later supported William Wallace's uprising against the English. Robert became a guardian of Scotland, with John Comyn, John Balliol's nephew and Robert's greatest rival for the Scottish throne Robert in 1306 quarrelled with John Comyn and stabbed him in a church in Dumfries. He was outlawed by King Edward 1st and excommunicated by the pope.

     

  • Robert;s daughter Marjory was the mother of Robert II of Scotland, the first Monarch from the House of Stuart.

 

  • Elizabeth de Burgh, was the daughter of Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster , who was a very powerful Irish Lord. Even though his daughter married Robert he still supported King Edward 1st of England in his cause. When Robert began his campaign in Ireland, Elizabeth's father fought against him.

 

  • The Time leading up to Robert's death, he was in great ill health, and it is speculated that he had form leprosy or maybe recognised now as a form of skin disease.

 

  • The Flower of Scotland, is a Scottish song, used frequently at special occasions and sporting events. The lyrics refer to the victory of the Scots, led by Robert the Bruce, over England's Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.

 

  • In 1929 statue of Robert the Bruce was set in the wall of Stirling Castle at the entrance, along with one of William Wallace.

ROBERT THE BRUCE IN FICTION

FILM/DRAMA

 

OUTLAW KING

BRAVEHEART

THE BRUCE

YEAR

 

2018

1995

1996

ACTOR
 
CHRIS PINE
ANGUS MACFADYEN
SANDY WELCH

TUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSETUDOR ROSETUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSE

  • Pinterest Social Icon

All contents © 2018 DEATHBYWORDS616: Tudor Rose

TUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSETUDOR ROSETUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSE TUDOR ROSE

  • Black Google+ Icon
  • Black Pinterest Icon
This site was designed with the
.com
website builder. Create your website today.
Start Now