STEPHEN GARDINER

TIME-LINE AND ADDITIONAL FACTS ON STEPHEN GARDINER BISHOP OF WINCHESTER AND LORD CHANCELLOR DURING THE ENGLISH REFORMATION PERIOD

TIME-LINE OF STEPHEN GARDINER

DATE                                EVENT
 
1483
  • Stephen Gardiner was born, in Bury St Edmunds. His parentage is unsure either been John Gardiner,or Wyllyam Gardiner
1485
1509
  • 21ST APRIL King Henry VII is dead and now his son Henry VIII is King of England.
1510
  • Stephen aged 28 years, met Erasmus in Paris
1520
  • Stephen received the degree of doctor of civil law
1521
  • Stephen received a degree in canon law
1522
  • Thomas Wriothesley, was a student of Stephens at Trinity Hall, Cambridge,
1525
  • Stephen began as a secretary to Thomas Wolsey
  • Stephen is given the office of Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge 1st term: 1525–1549
  • 30TH AUGUST The Treaty of the More between Henry VIII and the interim French government of Louise of Savoy. It was celebrated by Henry and the French ambassadors at the More, Hertfordshire, a castle owned by Henry's chief minister, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. Stephen was present and this most likely when he first introduced to the Kings notice.
1526
  • Stephen was Archdeacon of Taunton 1526–1531
1527
  • Stephen and Sir Thomas More were named commissioners on the part of England, in arranging a treaty with the French ambassadors for the support of an army in Italy against Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
  • Stephen accompanied Thomas Wolsey, on a diplomatic mission to France to gain the French King’s support for the King’s Great Matter (Divorce to Catherine of Aragon)
1528
  • Stephen is Secretary of State
1529
  • 31ST JANUARY Stephen joined William Knight and William Benet at Lyon, France.Stephen had brought new instructions for William Knight mission .
  • Stephen was Archdeacon of Worcester 1529–1531
  • AUGUST Stephen was appointed secretary yo King Henry VIII England.
1530
  • Stephen was Archdeacon of Norfolk 1530–1531
  • 4TH MAY Thomas Wriothesley appointed joint Clerk of the Signet under Stephen
  • Stephen was sent to Cambridge to procure the decision of the university as to the unlawfulness of marriage with a deceased brother's wife, in accordance with the new plan devised for settling the question without the pope's intervention. (in Relation to the Kings Great Matter)
  • 19TH NOVEMBER  The death of Thomas Wolsey
1531
  • 3RD DECEMBER Stephen Consecration
  • MARCH -DECEMBER Stephen was Archdeacon of Leicester
  • NOVEMBER Stephen was Bishop of Winchester 1531–1551 King Henry VIII rewarded him for his services with the bishopric of Winchester, vacant by after Thomas Wolsey death.
  • DECEMBER Edmund Steward became Stephen's Vicar General and Chancellor
1532
  • The Supplication against the Ordinaries. This was a was a petition passed by the House of Commons . It was the result of grievances against Church of England prelates and the clergy
  • 15TH APRIL Stephen reacted strongly against the clauses of the Supplication concerning the Convocation's ability to make Church laws (canons) He was involved in preparing the Answer of the Ordinaries, a reply to the Supplication Against the Ordinaries
  • 1ST SEPTEMBER Anne Boleyn was created Marquess of Pembroke The investiture ceremony was performed by Henry VIII himself in Windsor Castle. The ceremony was an elaborate affair, witnessed by the highest ranking peers and clergy in the kingdom, including Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk,  Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk ; Edward Lee, Archbishop of York; John Stokesley, Bishop of London; and Stephen. Stephen read the patent of creation while Anne knelt before the King who then invested her with the coronet, the robe of estate and the charters of creation and of the lands
1533
  • MAY Stephen assisted the Thomas Cranmer - Archbishop of Canterbury,, in pronouncing the marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon null and void
1534
  • Stephen divided into two Poundisford Park north of Pitminster, Somerset northern section of the park, including the original lodge, was leased to Roger Hill, whose son rebuilt the lodge. The southern area, as yet without a house, was leased to John Soper, who sold it to Hill’s son, William
1535
  • Stephen was also appointed ambassador to France and was accompanied by Thomas Wolsey. He stayed in France for three years.
  • Stephen and other bishops were called upon to vindicate the king's new title of "Supreme Head of the Church of England
1539
  • Stephen helped to prepare The Six Articles which reaffirmed the traditional Catholic doctrine on transubstantiation, clerical celibacy, the vow of chastity, the withholding of the cup from the laity at communion, private masses and auricular confession.
1543
  • The Treaty of Greenwich Which was two agreements both signed on 1st July 1543 in Greenwich between representatives of England and Scotland. entailed a plan developed by Henry VIII of England to unite both kingdoms (i.e. Union of the Crowns). The first sub-treaty helped to establish peace between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. The second sub-treaty was a marriage proposal between Edward VI of England and Mary, Queen of Scots Stephen was one of the commissioners for King Henry VIII of England.
  • The Prebendaries' Plot This was an as an attempt made by religious conservatives and cults in England to oust Thomas Cranmer from office as archbishop of Canterbury. It was believed that Stephen was behind the plot, However Stephen the survived .
1544
  • 7TH MARCH German Gardiner , Stephen's nephew was executed at Tyburn due to his involved in the Prebendaries' Plot against Thomas Cranmer
  • John Seton is one of Stephens chaplains
1545
  • Thomas Watson joined the familia of Stephen as a domestic chaplain
  • Thomas Watson worked side by side with Stephen during King Henry VIII England last two years, trying to keep the Church in England Catholic
1546
  • 19TH JUNE Stephen and Thomas Wriothesley questioned Anne Askew for two days
  • Stephen had tried to turn the king Henry VIII against his wife Catherine Parr, due to her Faith and personal beliefs. An arrest warrant was drawn up for her .However, she saw the warrant and managed to reconcile with the King after vowing that she had only argued about religion with him to take his mind off the suffering caused by his ulcerous leg
  • SEPTEMBER John Dudley struck Stephen in the face during a full meeting of the Council. This was a grave offence, and he was lucky to escape with a month's leave from court in disgrace
1547
  • 28TH JANUARY King Henry VIII of England is dead and now his son Edward VI is king.
  • In this year Stephen wrote at least twenty-five  indignant letters arguing that the reforms were both theologically wrong and unconstitutional. Most of these letters were addressed to Edward Seymour, The Duke of Somerset.
  • Stephen were committed to Fleet prison after opposing Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset's changes.
  • Thomas Watson was arrested and joined Stephen in Fleet prison.
1548
  • Stephen and Thomas Watson were released. Stephen is was confined to house arrest in London and Watson stayed with him.
  • DECEMBER Stephen and Thomas Watson were allowed to return to Winchester.
1549
  • Stephen opposed the changes . He and Thomas Watson were summoned back to London where Stephen was recommitted to the Tower
1550
  • DECEMBER Stephen appeared before the Privy council
1551
  • Stephen stood on trial
  • FEBRUARY Stephen was deprived of his bishopric and returned to the Tower where he remained for the rest of the reign of King Edward VI (A further two years)
  • 8TH MARCH John Ponet was appointed to the see of Winchester, replacing Stephen
1553
  • 6TH JULY King Edward VI is dead
  • 10TH JULY The Lady Jane Grey is Queen for nine days.
  • 19TH AUGUST Lady Jane Grey is deposed and imprisoned and now Mary Tudor is Queen of England
  • AUGUST On Stephen's advice Queen Mary 1st of England chose Thomas Watson to formally announce her intention to restore England to the Catholic Faith.
  • Stephen visited John Dudley (Duke of Northumberland) while in his imprisonment before his execution
  • 22ND AUGUST The execution of John Dudley
  • Stephen is re-instated Bishop of Winchester 2nd term: 1553–1555
    Stephen was appointed Lord chancellor 1553–1555
  • Stephen along with Thomas Watson was sent back to Cambridge with full authority to restore the University's former statutes and traditions.
  • Stephen is given the office of Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge 2nd term: 1553–1555
  • 1ST OCTOBER The coronation of Queen Mary Tudor, Stephen crowned Mary Himself.
1555
  • 29TH JANUARY Rowland Taylor who was Protestant Rector was brought before Stephen again at St Mary's , Rowland was excommunicated and sentenced to death.
  • Thomas Martin was chancellor to Stephen
  • 29TH JANUARY Stephen condemned John Hooper for heresy. John Hooper was executed by burning
  • MAY Stephen went to Calais as one of the English commissioners to promote peace with France; but their efforts were ineffectual
  • OCTOBER Stephen opened parliament as Lord Chancellor
  • Stephen's health was failing and e became very ill.suffering from jaundice and drops
  • 12TH NOVEMER Stephen Died at at Westminster
 
Stephen Gardiner was temporarily buried in a vault at the church of St Mary Overyes and in February 1556 he was brought down in great estate to Winchester Cathedral,
EXTRA ON STEPHEN GARDINER
 
  • Stephen Gardiner was Bishop of Winchester and lord chancellor during the English Reformation period
 
  • Stephen's His father is believed to have been John Gardiner, a substantial cloth merchant of the town where he was born
 
  • Stephen was not a popular man among the Protestants. Charles Brandon's wife Catherine The Duchess of Suffolk once gave a banquet and during a party game afterwards named Bishop Gardiner as the man she loved least. She named her pet spaniel "Gardiner", provoking much amusement when she called her dog to heel. In a play written in 1602 “Sir Thomas Wyatt”, Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, makes several appearances and is portrayed as a harsh supporter of Mary who is uncompromising in his treatment of those who oppose her or her policies.
 
  • One of Mary's first actions as queen was to order the release of the Roman Catholic Duke of Norfolk Thomas Howard and Stephen Gardiner from imprisonment in the Tower of London.
 
  • Stephen Gardiner did not fully support Queen Mary Tudor's marriage to Philip II of Spain. He and other did try to encourage her toward an English match which failed.
 
  • Some accounts claim that his last words were Erravi cum Petro, sed non flevi cum Petro (Like Peter, I have erred, unlike Peter, I have not wept).

     

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