TIME LINE ON THE HISTORY OF  SPIRITUALISM

Spiritualism is a religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living

The History of Modern Spiritualism.Modern Spiritualism dates from 1848

1688

8th February

The birth of Emanuel Swedenborg. (D.29th March 1772) He was a Swedish pluralistic-Christian theologian, scientist, philosopher. Swedenborg, claimed to communicate with spirits while awake, described the structure of the spirit world.He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758)

1804

3rd October

The birth of Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail pen-name was Allan Kardec (D.31st March 1869). He was a  French educator, translator and author. He is the author of the five books known as the Spiritist Codification, and is the founder of Spiritism

1823

2nd May

The birth of Emma Hardinge Britten (D.2nd October 1899) was an English advocate for the early Modern Spiritualist Movement. Much of her life and work was recorded and published in her speeches and writing on the spiritual movement

1827

17th November

1832

The birth of William H. Mumler, (D.1884) was an American spirit photographer who worked in New York and Boston.His first spirit photograph was apparently an accident—a self-portrait which, when developed, also revealed the "spirit" of his deceased cousin. Mumler's photographs are recognized as fakes but they circulated widely during the last quarter of the 19th century and were marketed as objects of belief and visual curiosities

 

27th May

The birth of Alexandr Nikolayevich Aksakov (D. 4 January 1903) was a Russian

 writer, translator, journalist, editor, state official and psychic researcher, who is credited with having coined the term "telekinesis"

17th June 

The birth of Sir William Crookes (D.4th April 1919) He  was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistr in London, and worked on spectroscopy. For a time, he was interested in spiritualism and became president of the Society for Psychical Research.

1833

10th March

The birth of Daniel Dunglas Home (D.21st June 1886) was a Scottish physical medium with the reported ability to levitate to a variety of heights, speak with the dead, and to produce rapping and knocks in houses at will. 

1835

The birth of Henry Slade (D.1905) was a famous fraudulent medium who lived and practiced in both Europe and North America.

1839

The birth of William Stainton Moses​. He was an English cleric and spiritualist medium.Moses attended his first séance with Lottie Fowler in 1872.  Five months after his introduction

to spiritualism, he claimed to have experienced levitation . He was one of the first vice-presidents of the Society for Psychical Research,

17th September

The birth of Ira Erastus Davenport (D. 8th July  1911) known as one of the Davenport brothers. The other brother. William Henry Davenport (February 1841 – July 1877).They were American

 magicians in the late 19th century.The brothers presented illusions that they and others claimed to be supernatural.

1840

21st April

The birth of Cora Lodencia Veronica Scott (D.3rd January 1923) was one of the

best-known mediums of the Spiritualism movement of the last half of the 19th century. Most of her work was done as a trance lecturer.

 

The birth of Édouard Isidore Buguet . Hewas a French medium and spirit photographer.

1844

10th February

The birth of Sir William Fletcher Barrett (D.26th May 1925) He was an English physicist 

and parapsychologist.Barrett became interested in the paranormal in the 1860s after having an experience with mesmerism.

1847

23rd January

The birth of Elijah Jefferson Bond (D.14th April 1921) He  was an American lawyer and inventor. He is most known for inventing the ouija board.

1848

31st March

 Spiritualists often set this date , as the beginning of their movement. On that date, Kate and Margaret Fox, of Hydesville, New York, reported that they had made contact with a spirit that was later claimed to be the spirit of a murdered peddler whose body was found in the house, though no record of such a person was ever found. The two younger sisters used "rappings" to convince their older sister and others that they were communicating with spirits

1850

25th August

The birth of Prof Charles Robert Richet (D.4 December 1935) was a French physiologist

 at the Collège de France . Richet devoted many years to the study of paranormal 

and spiritualist phenomena, coining the term "ectoplasm".

1851

The birth of Bert Reese (D.1926) was an American-Polish medium and mentalist, most well known for his billet reading demonstrations. He claimed to possess the ability of x-ray vision.

1854

21st January

The birth of Eusapia Palladino (D.16th May 1918) was an Italian Spiritualist physical medium.She claimed to possess extraordinary powers such as the ability to levitate tables, communicate with the dead through her spirit guide John King 

1857

18th April

The  the French educator Allan Kardec published "The Spirits Book" which is part of the Spiritist Codification, and is regarded as one of the five fundamental works of Spiritism.

27th June

The birth of Leonora Piper (née Leonora Evelina Simonds; (D.3rd June 1950) was a

famous American trance medium in the area of Spiritualism.Researchers and scientists who studied Piper's mediumship have described mentalist techniques such as cold reading, muscle reading and "fishing", all techniques that she may have used to gather information about séance sitters, so she could appear to have unexplained insight

1859

22nd May

The birth of Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (D.7th July 1930) was a British writer, who created the character Sherlock Holmes.He was a founding member of the Hampshire Society for Psychical Research 

The birth, Etta Wriedt (D..1942) was an American direct voice medium. She charged people money to attend her séances, one of her spirit guides was "John Sharp" who claimed he was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in the eighteenth century.

1862

The Ghost Club is a paranormal investigation and research organization,was  founded in London.  It counted Charles Dickens and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle among its members.

 

The birth of Mary "May" E. Bangs (One of the The Bangs Sisters) (D.1917).The other sister Elizabeth "Lizzie" Snow Bangs (1859-1920). They were two fraudulent spiritualist mediums from Chicago, who made a career out of painting the dead or "Spirit Portraits"

1866

The birth of Frau Maria Silbert (D.1936)She  was an Austrian spiritualist medium.Her famous trick was to engrave cigarette cases under the table during her séances

 

1872

The Spiritualist Association of Great Britain (the SAGB) is a British spiritualist organisation was established.Arthur Conan Doyle was a well known supporter of the SAGB

1873

August

The British National Association of Spiritualists (BNAS) was formed by Thomas Everitt, Edmund Rogers and others at a meeting in Liverpool.

1874

24th March

The birth of Harry Houdini,born Erik Weisz, later Ehrich Weiss or Harry Weiss;

(D. 31st October 1926) was a Hungarian-born American illusionist and stunt performer, noted for his sensational escape acts.In the 1920s, Houdini turned his energies toward debunking

 psychics and mediums, a pursuit that inspired and was followed by latter-day stage magicians

1st November

The birth of Mrs Winifred Margaret Coombe Tennant (D. 31 August 1956) He was a

British suffragist, Liberal politician, philanthropist, patron of the arts and spiritualist.  She was one of the mediums involved in the cross-correspondences, in which messages from the deceased Mary Catherine Lyttleton (who died on 21dt March 1875) were supposedly transmitted by automatic writing to her lover Arthur Balfour.

1875

12th October

The birth of Aleister Crowley(D.1st December 1947), He  was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer. He founded the religion of Thelema, identifying himself as the prophet entrusted with guiding humanity into the Æon of Horus in the early 20th century.

1877

18th March

The birth of Edgar Cayce (D.3rd January 1945) He was an American self-professed clairvoyant who answered questions on subjects as varied as healing, reincarnation, wars, Atlantis, and future events while allegedly asleep. A biographer gave him the nickname, The Sleeping Prophet.

1880

17th October

The birth of Hereward Carrington (D.26th December 1958) was a well-known British-born American investigator of psychic phenomena and author.Initially a sceptic about psychic abilities, his interest grew from reading books on the subject and at the age of 19 he joined the Society for Psychical Research (SPR)

1881

17th January

The birth of Harry Price (D.29th March 1948) He was a British psychic researcher and author, who gained public prominence for his investigations into psychical phenomena and his exposing fraudulent spiritualist mediums.

1882

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) was founded. This was  is a nonprofit organisation in the United Kingdom.It describes itself as the "first society to conduct organised scholarly research into human experiences that challenge contemporary scientific models

 

28th May

The birth of Gladys Osborne Leonard (D.19 March 1968) She was a British trance medium, renowned for her work with the Society for Psychical Research.  Although psychical researchers were convinced she had communicated with spirits, skeptical researchers concluded that Leonard's trance control was a case of dissociative identity disorder.She claimed to have experienced her first 'visitation' by spirits when she was a child. She claimed that the spirits would show her landscapes which she would refer to as the 'Happy Valley

1883

15th February

The birth of Pearl Lenore Curran (D.4th December 1937).Patience Worth was allegedly a spirit contacted by Pearl Lenore Curran.This symbiotic relationship produced several novels, poetry and prose which Pearl Curran claimed were delivered to her through channelling the spirit of Patience Worth

16th May

The birth of Arthur Findlay (D.24th July 1964) was a writer, accountant,stockbroker and Essex

 magistrate, as well as a significant figure in the history of the religion of Spiritualism, being a partial founder of the newspaper Psychic News and also a founder of the International Institute for Psychical Research.

1884

The American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) was founded. This  is the oldest psychical research organization in the United States dedicated to parapsychology

1888

The birth of Mina "Margery" Crandon (D.1st November  1941) was a well known psychical

 medium who claimed that she channeled her dead brother, Walter Stinson. Crandon was investigated by members of the American Society for Psychical Research and employees of the Scientific American.

1891

Camp Chesterfield was founded. This was the home of the Indiana Association of Spiritualists, located in Chesterfield, Indiana. Camp Chesterfield offers Spiritualist Church services, seminary,

and mediumship, faith healing, and spiritual development classes, as well as psychic readings for patrons.

1893

17th March

The birth of Eileen J. Garrett (D. 15th September 1970) was an Irish medium and parapsychologist. 

 Garrett's alleged psychic abilities were tested in the 1930s by Joseph Rhine and others

1st September

"The National Spiritualist Association of Churches" was founded by W.H. Bach, H.D. Barrett, L.V. Moulton, J.M. Peebles, C.L.V. Scott

 

1894

The term Ectoplasm was first coined in 1894 by psychical researcher Charles Richet. Ectoplasm (from the Greek ektos, meaning "outside", and plasma, meaning "something formed or molded") is a term used in spiritualism to denote a substance or spiritual energy "exteriorized" by physical mediums.

1897

25th November

The birth of Helen Duncan (D.6th December 1956) was a Scottish medium best known as the last person to be imprisoned under the British Witchcraft Act of 1735. She was

famous for producing ectoplasm made from cheesecloth.

1898

The birth of Kathleen Goligher. She was an Irish spiritualist medium. Goligher was endorsed by engineer William Jackson Crawford who wrote three books about her mediumship but was exposed as a fraud by physicist Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe in 1921

1901

The Spiritualists' National Union (SNU) is a Spiritualist organisation, was founded in the United Kingdom. This  was  one of the largest spiritualist groups in the world. Its motto is Light, Nature, Truth.

 

1903

22nd April

The birth of Karl Edward Zener (D.27th September 1964) was a perceptual psychologist best known for his affiliation with Dr. J. B. Rhine and their work in the field of extra-sensory perception or ESP.It was also during this time that, along with colleague J.B. Rhine, he devised the card symbols that were used by Rhine in early ESP tests. Rhine called cards bearing these symbols "Zener cards" in honor of his colleague

1907

The birth Jack Webber (1907-1940) was a Welsh spiritualist medium.He claimed his own mediumistic abilities such as levitation of objects, ectoplasm, psychokinesis and communicating with spirit voices

1908

27th July

The birth of Rudi Schneider (D.28th April 1957) He was an Austrian Spiritualist and physical medium

 

1911

The birth of William Roy (D.1977) was the pseudonym of William George Holroyd Plowright, a notorious fraudulent medium in the history of British spiritualism. He concealed a microphone and recorded the conversations of the sitters before his séances

3rd October

The birth of Baba Vanga full name "Vangeliya Pandeva Gushterova" (D.11 August 1996) She was a blind Bulgarian mystic, clairvoyant, and herbalist. Zheni Kostadinova claimed in 1997 that millions of people believed she possessed paranormal abilities

1920

6th January

The birth of Doris May Fisher Stokes (D.8th May 1987), born Doris Sutton,was a British

 spiritualist and professional medium. Her public performances, television appearances and memoirs made her a household name in Britain.  Investigations published after her death demonstrated that she routinely planted unwitting accomplices in her audience

1923

The International Spiritualist Federation  a society dedicated to supporting spiritualist churches around the globe was officially established.

1926

The National Laboratory of Psychical Research was established by Harry Price, at 16 Queensberry Place, London.

1931

The Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.), also known as Edgar Cayce's A.R.E., was founded by Edgar Cayce 

1932

28th May

Psychic News was a weekly British Spiritualist newspaper was founded.The name of the paper was devised by one of its founding editors, Maurice Barbanell, who said that he was told to use it by his spirit guide.

1934

The International Institute for Psychical Research (IIPR) was a short-lived psychical organization based in London that was formed by Catherine Amy Dawson Scott and Shaw Desmond

1943

The Agasha Temple of Wisdom is a spiritualist group  was founded by Richard Zenor.

 

1960

The death of Ethel Post-Parrish an American Spiritualist medium.In her séances Parrish claimed to materialize her spirit guide an Indian girl known as Silver Belle. The camp was exposed in 1960 as infra red film had revealed that the materialized figures were all human and had entered the séance room through a side door.

1964

Arthur Findlay College is a college of Spiritualism and psychic sciences was founded in Stansted Hall in Stansted Mountfitchet, Essex, England.

1992

28th November

The International Spiritist Council (ISC) is an organization was  founded

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